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Anatomy, Diseases and Disorders of the Gastrointestional tract

Theresa Klein RN Endoscopy Unit

Words used in the Endoscopy Department describing medical conditions or anatomy of the esophagus and stomach, small intestine, and the large intestine.

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Across
3.A procedure that uses a flexible lighted instrument to look inside the sigmoid colon and rectum (2 Words)
9.Also known as the cardiac sphincter, which controls the passage of food into the stomach. (3 Words)
11.A bacteria that is highly mobile and it has adapted to and avoids acidic nature of the stomach by burrowning beneath the mucosa of the stomach and duodenum causing a peptic ulcer. (2 Words)
17.Object or objects in the esophagus causing acute foreign body obstruction. Coins are common in children and meat in adults. (3 Words)
22.Most commonly occurs in the elderly and smokers and presents as bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain and usualy spares the rectum and can be drug induced by birth control pills, digitalis, and cocaine and usually resolves spontaneously. (2 Words)
23.Disease of the upper GI tract that often worsens reflux symptoms when foods such as citrus fruits, chocolate, caffeine drinks, alcohol, fatty and fried foods, garlic, onions, mint flavorings, spicy foods, tomato-based foods, like spaghetti sauce, salsa, chili, and pizza.
24.Any tissue protrusion into the lumen of the intestine which can lead to colon cancer. (2 Words)
25.A chronic and recurrent inflammation affecting the mucosa and submucosa that causes ulceration, hemorrhage as well as congestion and edema. (2 Words)
26.A defect of peristalsis in the esophageal body and an elevated lower esophageal sphincter pressure.
27.This occurs after years of reflux when the normal squmous cells of the esophagus are replaced by columnar cells, a junctional cell or a gastric fundus cell. (2 Words)
28.Painful swallowing
29.A tubular structure that extends from the pyloric sphincter to the cecum. It has three sections the c-shaped muscular duoden, the jejunum, and the terminal ileum, which ends at the ileocecal valve. (2 Words)
Down
1.A procedure that uses a flexible lighted instrument to look inside the upper GI tract which includes th esophagus, stomach, and duodenum-(the first part of the small intestine.
2.An abnormal formation of fibrous tissue that is usually at the end of the esophagus and may or may not be circumferential. (2 Words)
4.A motility disorder of the large and small intestine and is the second leading cause of absentieeism from work next to the common cold. (3 Words)
5.Difficulty swallowing
6.The primary function of this organ is to iniate digestion by using chemical secretions and mechanical movements and serves as a reservoir for swallowed food and liquids as well as digestive secretions..
7.Also known as the hypopharyngeal shincter, which is made up of cricopharyngeal muscle and cricoid cartilage. (3 Words)
8.Mucosal tears at the gastrointestinal junction associated with prolonged forceful vomiting, trauma, childbirth or as a complication of GERD (Gastointestional Reflux Disease.) (3 Words)
10.Often associated with alcoholic cirrhosis but may be seen in chronic hepatitis, portal vein thrombosis, primary biliary cirrhosis and biliary atresia. (2 Words)
11.Occurs when the upper part of the stomach and the LES move above the diaphragm, the muscle wall that separates the stomach from the chest. (2 Words)
12.A channel for food going from the mouth to the stomach, which is a hollow muscular tube approximately 10 inches in length and 1 inch diameter in adults.
13.A procedure that uses a flexible lighted instrument to look inside the upper GI tract which includes th esophagus, stomach, and duodenum-(the first part of the small intestine.
14.Inflammation with bleeding from erosions in the esophagus.
15.A sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum, the beginning of the small intestine which is strongly linked between H. pylori and this disease. (3 Words)
16.Botulinum toxin used to inject all four quadrants of the lower esophageal sphincter which acts as a paralytic agent (flaccid muscular paralysis) to treat achalasia.
18.Inflammation of gastric mucosa caused by an irritant(gastric acid, bile reflux, medications or impairment of natural protective mechanisms. Gastritis is classified according to the inflammatory pattern. Acute(erosive and hemorrahagic or Chronic (nonerosive gastritis).
19.Bleeding that usually asymptomatic, painless, and is life threatening due to increased portal pressure causing voluminous amounts of bleeding. (2 Words)
20.Epigastric pain or discomfort.
21.A distally progressive band of circular muscular contractions that begin in the pharynx and moves distally at a rate of 3-5 cm per second.

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