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Chapter 5

Michelle Reed

Ciccarelli & White (2009)

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Across
4.the tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation because of a history of repeated failures in the past
6.learned reflex response to a conditioned stimulus
8.the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus or the removal of a reinforcer
10.any reinforcer that becomes reinforcing after being paired with a primary reinforcer, such as praise, tokens, or gold stars
11.the use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about desired changes in behavior
13.any event or object that, when following a response, makes that response less likely to happen again
15.schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is different for each trial or event
18.development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction, occurring after only one association
22.the punishment of a response by the addition or experiencing of an unpleasant stimulus
34.emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli
38.any reinforcer that is naturally reinforcing by meeting a basic biological need, such as hunger, thirst, or touch
40.tendency for an animal's behavior to revert to genetically controlled patterns
41.schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same
42.learning to make an involuntary response (reflex) to a stimulus other than the original, natural stimulus that normally produces the reflex
44.the punishment of a response by the removal of a pleasurable stimulus
45.the tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditined stimulus with the conditioned response
46.the tendency to stop mkaing a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus
47.original theory in which Pavlov states that classical conditioning occurred because the conditioned stimulus became a substitute for the unconditioned stimulus by being paired closely together
Down
1.referring to the observation that learning can take place without actual performance of the learned behavior
2.schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is different for each trial or event
3.stimulus that becomes able to produce a learned reflex response by being paired with the original unconditioned stimulus
5.modern theory in which classical conditioning is seen to occur because the conditioned stimulus provides information or an expectancy about the coming of the unconditioned stimulus
7.the learning of voluntary behavior through the effects of pleasant and unpleasant consequences to responses
9.classical conditioning of a reflex response or emotion by watching the reaction or another person
12.any stimulus that provides the organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement
14.occurs when a strong conditioned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus, causing the neutral stimulus to become a second conditioned stimulus
16.using of feedback about biological conditions to bring involuntary responses under voluntary control
17.modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior or response
19.the reinforcement of simple steps in behavior that lead to a desired, more complex behavior
20.schedule of reinforcement in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is always the same
21.the tendency for a response that is reinforced after some, but not all, correct responses to be very resistant to extinction
22.the reinforcement of a response by the addition or experiencing of a pleasurable stimulus
23.the reinforcement of a response by the removal, escape from, or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus
24.referring to the tendency of animals to learn certain associations with only one or few pairings due to the survival value of the learning
25.stimulus that has no effect on the desired response
26.form of biofeedback using brain-scanning devices to provide feedback about brain activity in an effort to modify behavior
27.the reinforcement of each and every correct response
28.learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful
29.an involuntary response to a naturally occurring or unconditioned stimulus
30.the reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred
31.a naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary response
32.learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior
33.type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens
35.small steps in behavior, one after the other, that lead to a particular goal behavior
36.law stating that if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, it will tend to be repeated, and if followed by an unpleasant consequence, it will tend not to be repeated
37.any behavior that is voluntary
39.any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again
43.the sudden perception of relationships among various parts of a problem, allowing the solution to the problem to come quickly

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