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Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues in Computing Terminology

Taneeka Murphy

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3.refers to “materials” (including software) that is not owned or controlled by anyone. The materials are "public property", and are available for anyone to use freely for any purpose
9.is a form of intellectual property that gives the author of an original work exclusive right for a certain time period in relation to that work, including its publication, distribution and adaptation.
10.is computer software that is available for use at no cost or for an optional fee.
11.is a play on the word copyright, and usually refers to a copyright licensing scheme in which an author surrenders some but not all rights under copyright law.
12.(GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. It is an example of a powerful copyleft license that requires derived works to be available under the same copyleft. Under this philosophy, the GPL grants the recipients of a computer program the rights of the free software definition and uses copyleft to ensure the freedoms are preserved, even when the work is changed or added to.
13.stands for End-User License Agreement. This is a legal document that governs the use of all software applications. When software is purchased, the purchaser does not actually "own" the software itself. What is actually purchased is a license to use that software. The software publisher retains all rights, including copyrights, to the software and accompanying media. The EULA document outlines the terms of the software license, spelling out all rights and restrictions relating to the ownership, use, distribution, and warranty of the software product.
14.is a contract between two parties that does not allow for negotiation
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1.is a contract between a software company and the purchaser/user of that software. The software license grants the user specific rights to use the software in particular ways. It also allows a developer or a publisher to continue to own the software. This retained ownership is very important because it allows the developer or publisher to control the future development of the software, and to ensure that the software meets its quality control standards on an ongoing basis
2.is any collection of statements or declarations written in some human-readable computer programming language. It is the mechanism most often used by programmers to specify the actions to be performed by computers.
3.software is software that is owned by an individual or a company (usually the one that developed it). There are almost always major restrictions on its use, and its source code is almost always kept secret
4.is a copyright license for computer software that makes the source code available under terms that allow for modification and redistribution without having to pay the original author. Such licenses may have additional restrictions such as a requirement to preserve the name of the authors and the copyright statement within the code.
5.refers to a software license agreement which is enclosed within a software package and is inaccessible to the customer until after purchase. Typically, the license agreement is printed on paper included inside the boxed software.
6.license is a software license which grants recipients rights to modify and redistribute the software which would otherwise be prohibited by copyright law.
7.doctrine is a limitation on copyright. The doctrine allows the purchaser to transfer (i.e., sell or give away) a particular lawfully made copy of the copyrighted work without permission once it has been obtained. This means that the copyright holder's rights to control the change of ownership of a particular copy end once that copy is sold, as long as no additional copies are made.
8.is one that is accepted on-screen during installation of the software.

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