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Evolution Chapter 11

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Across
5.proposed group selection
6.The differential rate of origination or extinction of whole populations (or species, if the term is used broadly) on the basis of differences among them in one or more characteristics.
7.Demonstrated group selection can work
8.A procedure for inferring the adaptive function of a character by correlating its states in various taxa with one or more variables, such as ecological factors hypothesized to affect its evolution.
10.The evolution of a function of a gene, tissue, or structure other than the one it was originally adapted for; can also refer to the adaptive use of a previously nonadaptive trait.
11.A form of selection in which the single gene is the unit of selection, such that the outcome is determined by fitness values assigned to different alleles.
12.A form of natural selection consisting of nonrandom differences among different genotypes (or phenotypes) within a population in their contribution to subsequent generations.
13.A form of selection whereby alleles differ in their rate of propagation by influencing the impact of their bearers on the reproductive success of individuals (kin) who carry the same alleles by common descent.
15.A form of group selection in which species with different characteristics increase (by speciation) or decrease (by extinction) in number at different rates because of a difference in their characteristics.
16.Used broadly to denote a preponderance (> 50 percent) of one allele among the gametes produced by a heterozygote; results in genic selection.
17.The success of an entity in reproducing; hence, the average contribution of an allele or genotype to the next generation or to succeeding generations.
18.Proposed kin selection theory
19.A process of genetic change in a population whereby, as a result of natural selection, the average state of a character becomes improved with reference to a specific function, or whereby a population is thought to have become better suited to some feature of its environment. Also, an adaptation: a feature that has become prevalent in a population because of a selective advantage conveyed by that feature in the improvement in some function.
Down
1.The method of predicting what one will find by deducing it from hypotheses.
2.A reference to the fact that differences in survival and reproduction exist not only among individual organisms but also among genes and among populations and species. Thus, different kinds of biological entities may vary in fitness, resulting in different levels of selection.
3.Possession of the necessary properties to permit a shift to a new niche, habitat, or function. A structure is preadapted for a new function if it can assume that function without evolutionary modification.
4.demonstrated that individual selection will always trump group selection
9.Differential reproduction as a result of variation in the ability to obtain mates.
14.Change in the frequency of an allele due to linkage with a selected allele at another locus.

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