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Across
1.A system of membranes in a eukaryotic cell, comprising the plasma membrane, nuclear membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and associated vesicles, lysosomes and vacuolar membrane (tonoplast)
5.A region of chromosomes, thought to be genetically inactive that remains tightly coiled during interphase
7.An experimental approach that begins with a known DNA sequence and proceeds to identify mutations in the corresponding gene to understand its function
10.A network of stacked vesicles in eukaryotic cells in which preteisn and lipids are processed and packaged, often for secretion
14.Proteins that bind ATP and can move on a suitable substrate with concomitant ATP hydrolysis
17.Division of the cytoplasm during cell division, following division of the nucleus
19.The addition/ removal of phosphate groups through opposing enzyme reactions; for example, phosphorylation/ dephosphorylation of specific amino acids residues is a method of regulating some proteins
20.A family of kinases that, once activated by cyclin, regulate the cell cycle by adding phosphate groups to a variety of protein substrates that that control processes in the cycle
22.The region of the chromosome where the spindle is attached during cell division
24.specialized form of cell division during which a diploid cell produces haploid daughter cells
27.Saclike membrane elements, usually in a stacked form, in the stroma of a plastid, usually a chloroplast
28.The region of a chromosome that is rich in active genes and has chromatin less densely packed than in other regions
29.A compound consisting of a nitrogen containing base, a phosphate group, and a sugar group
30.Part of a gene that is transcribed into an RNA transcript and is present in the mature messenger RNA
31.The first stage of Mitosis, during which the chromosomes condense but are not yet attached to a mitotic spindle; also a stage of meiosis
Down
2.replication without cell division, resulting in polyploidy cells
3.that bind to regulatory sequences of a gene to control its expression
4.A segment of nucleic acid that encodes a product (RNA or a protein) with a distinct biochemical function and is replicated and passed to the next generation, thus passing on the ability to make this same product
6.Long, filamentous protein polymers in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, composed of the protein tubulin. They occur singly or in pairs, triplets, or bundles, as part of the cytoskeleton, and are involved in cell structure and movement
8.An array of short DNA sequences at the end of a eukaryotic chromosome
9.One half of a replicated chromosome
11.The cellular process in which chromosomes are duplicated and separated into two daughter cells
12.Enzymes that catalyze the polymerization of ribonucleotides to produce RNAs
13.Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group to an organic substrate
15.process by which a DNA sequence is copied to form two or more new copies
16.The process by which information in a DNA molecule is converted into information in an RNA molecule; that is, RNA synthesis that uses DNA as a template
18.Genome contains more than two homologous sets of chromosomes
21.A hairlike outgrowth of the shoot (stem and leaf) epidermis, consisting of a single modified cell or multiple cells
23.A DNA sequence recognized by regulatory proteins and RNA polymerase to promote transcription of a gene
25.Nuclear proteins, DNA winds around histones to form chromatin
26.Proteins involved in the regulation of the cell cycle. They form a complex with and activate a cyclin-dependant protein kinase (CDK)

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