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Tharp's Weather Puzzle

Tharp

crossword puzzle dealing with the weather and climate terms for Freshmen Earth Science Ch 14

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104                

Across
1.this leaches the minerals from the A layer or top layer of soil
5.the process where water carry dissolved minerals to lower layers of rock
7.the number of horizons that make up a soil
9.the conversion (changing) of a compound into a carbonate
11.the process where whole sheets of rock peel away because the cracks or joints run parallel to the actual surface or face of the rock
13.plateaus 'age' or erode into this smaller tablelike areas called...
15.the fast falling of rock from a steep cliff
16.(two words crunched together) this material makes up the bottom layer or the C Horizon where the mechanical and chemical chages of soil happen
21.long curved cracks in the granite (rock) that develop when erosion of top layers of rock are worn away
24.this is the type of soil that is carried from one location of the parent rock by water, wind or glaciers
27.chemicals 'act' on this in the rock
29.this is the complex mixture of minerals, water, gases and remains of dead organisms
30.this cross section of soil and bedrock that scientists use to study the make up of the ground is called a soil.....
31.these are the land areas where ice wedging frequently occurs
32.extremely slow downhil movement of weathered rock
34.this is the movement that gravity causes as the rock fragments move down the slope
35.one of the most important factors that influences soil formation
37.worms are used to break down food waste in this type of composting
38.this pedocal soil is found west of this major waterway
40.this is what really affects slopes/mountainsides and the land/mudslides that happen
41.these agents, whcih include wind, rain and temperature change help to disintegrate and decompose the rocks
43.soil particles with diameters from .05 to 2 mm
48.the percentage water expands when frozen
49.these land areas tend to have very rich topsoils (A Horizon or the top layer of soil) because the slopes run into them
51.grooves through which water flows within rock
52.these types of soils develop distinctive layers over time
54.a flat landform that is near sea level
57.Oxidation, carbonation, acid precipitation and this are the four chemical reactions that decompose or break down rock
60.the thpe of weather where rock is brocken down into smaller pieces by physcial means
62.the physical breakdown or chemical decompostion of rock materals exposed at the Earth's Surface
64.materials of the Earth's surface are loosened, dissoved or worn away and moved (transported) from one place to another by Natural Agents (wind, water, ice and gravity)
65.Her "needle" was moved from Egypt to New York and has had more surface changes in 130 years then had happened in 3,000
67.this i sthe grinding and wearing away of rock surfaces through mechanical action of other rock and sand particles
68.(two words bunched together) this area of the United States has pedalfer soils
71.the process by which a metallic element combines with oxygen
72.chemical reactions commonly occur between rock, water, carbon dioxide, oxygen and these...
75.the rapid movemnt of a large amound of mud
77.these Ions are electrically charged and can pull chemical bonds of minerals in the rock apart.
81.the solid rock layer of the bottom most layer or C Horizon
82.when masses loose rock combined with the topsoil suddenly fall down a slope.
84.the elevation and slope of the land surface influences the rate of weathing
86.this type of soil conservation reduces erosion by plowing in curved bands that follow the shape of the land
88.this is the area of the United States where temperatures regularly rise above then fall below freezing
91.this type of soil found in temperate (warm,cool, some rain) climates that contain large amounts of calcium carbonate (making it very fertile and less acidic than pedalfer) soil
93.this in a warm climate is highly destructive to exposed surfaces
94.farming a hillside by creating different levels or steps down a mountainside to prevent rapid water runoff and erosion
96.this and water can both be major causes in the 'sheet' erosion
97.this is where the farmer plants a crop and harvests it one year but does not harvest the cover crop the next
98.in arctic and desert climates with little rainfall chemical weathering occurs at this pace or speed
99.particles with diameters from .002 to .05mm
101.the three landforms are mountains, plains and these... which are broad flat lands at high eleveations
102.the more of this a rock receives, the faster it will weather
103.as organisms die, they decay and produce this in the top or A layer of soil
104.one of the causes of abrasion - others are ice and running water
Down
2.the number of landforms
3.for any oxidation to happen in minerals like hematie and magnetite, the soil must contain these type of minerals
4.this determines what type of soil the region will eventurally has
5.the physical features of the Earth
6.this refers to the make-up of the soil
8.the natural 'sand blaster' that hurls small rock particles against surfaces in the abrasion process
10.farmers sometimes let animals overdo this to farm areas and promote erosion of the soil
12.(two words) these are the natrual zones of weakness within a rock
13.this country had sections of it that had severe forms of 'gullying' and no longer can be used for farming
14.one of the ways soil (rocks/ground) is moved from the tops of mountains to the valleys
17.the color of oxidation of the iron chemical reaction by iron rich minerals
18.(three words bunched together) these are the three main sizes of rock materials that make up soil
19.a way humans speed up weathering through such things as four wheeling or hiking
20.the two chemical agents that cause reactions in the water are either acids or these...
22.this is the process where the land and topsoil can be saved by watching what how land is treated/cared for
23.another name for chemical weathering
25.this is where arctic soils unfreeze (thaw) and flow downhill over the frozen sublayers
26.the rock fragments that accumulate because of 'creep' at the base of a mountain or slope
28.the part of solil with the particle diameter less than .002 mm.
29.if the shape of the land (topography) is like this, the soil and minerals will wash away
33.important agents in our mechanical weathering
36.this brings the materials/minerals from the topsoil A Horizon to this the middle, subsoil or B Horizon
38.this is the region you're most apt to find mudslides
39.this type of erosion is where water flows over a layer of soil and removes the topsoil
42.a 'natural' trigger or cause of a landslide
44.the process where soil is washed away with each rainfall down the furrows and slopes - ruining the farmland
45.this type of erosion is considered to be one of the greatest environmental problems facing the world today
46.the Appalachians are this type of one of the three landforms
47.the flat area across the center of the United States is one of the three types of landforms called the Great...
50.the part of the rock that is exposed to the air, water and other agents of weathering
53.black soils are rich in this type of material
55.one way that humans chemically and mechanically (digging/blowing up) break down the rock and soil
56.after millions of years mountains become lower and flatter and are known as these...
57.a chemical reaction between water and another substance to form two or more new substances
58.(two words cruched together as one) water seeps into cracks in the rock and freezes which eventually splits the rock
59.as a rock breaks into smaller pieces, more of it's surface area is this...
61.is the solid unweathered rock that lies beneatht he top rock layer or regolith
63.this type of farming uses alternating areas of crops such as corn then alfalfa to reduce soil erosion
66.a substance or living organism that has an impact on an ecological process (the natural forces of our world)
69.in temperate climates you have this many soils
70.the top or the A Horizon made up of a mixture of organic materials and small rock particles
73.this part of the soil contains minerals leached by the topsoil, clay and sometimes humus.
74.long narrow rows that if plowed wrong by farmers - the topsoil can wash or blow away
76.a condition or an event that brings about or contributes to a result
78.means to define or to decide
79.important agents in mechanical weathering that burrow into the soil
80.this is the climate where temperatures range between cool and warm and there's not too much rainfall
82.thick tropical soils taht contain iron and aluminum minerals that don't dissolve easily in water
83.the layer of weathered rock fragments that covers much of the Earths surface.
85.the weathering process which rocks break down as a result of chemical reactions and their effect on our environment
87.the most dramatic and detructive mass movements (change in the land) occurs at this speed
89.mesas erode into small naroow topped formations called these...
90.the differnt layers of soil used in the study of a soil and bedrock
91.the soil in the temperate (warm, cool, some rain) climate this soil contains clay, quartz and iron compost. This area receives more than 65 cm of rain per year
92.bat droppings or guano attract insects that like millipedes and beetles that speeds up chemical reactions that breaks up the floors
95.a state rich in iron loaded rock and soil which is red
98.the moving of a block of soil or rock down the curved slope
100.this acts like a frozen second layer in the artic region and allows the soil to slide over the harder layer underneath

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