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Cellular Respiration

Storm E. Photon

Chapter 9. Contains: citric cycle, AcetylCoA, Adenosine Triphosphate, ATP synthase, chemiosmosis, glucose, mitochondrial matrix, oxidation, cristae, glycolysis, cytochrome C, electron transport chain, phosphorylation, reduction, proton-motive force, pyruvate dehydrogenase, ubiquinone.

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3.A series of ten chemical reactions that oxidize glucose to produce pyruvate and ATP. Used by all organisms as part of fermentation or cellular respiration.
5.A molecule produced by oxidation of pyruvate (the final product of glycolysis) in a reaction catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase. Can enter the citric cycle and also is used as a carbon source in the synthesis of fatty acids, steroids, and other compounds.
8.Central compartment of a mitochondrion, which is lined by the inner membrance; contains the enzymes and substrates of the citric acid cycle and mitochondrial DNA.
11.Six-carbon monosaccharide whose oxidation in cellular respiration is the major source of ATP in animal cells.
13.The addition of a phosphate group to a molecule.
15.Sac-like invaginations of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion. Location of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase.
16.A nonprotein molecule that shuttles electrons between membrane-bound complexes in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Also called coenzyme Q.
17.A molecule consisting of adenine, a sugar, and three phosplate groups that can be hydrolyzed to release energy. Universally used by cells to store and transfer energy.
1.Any set of membrane-bound protein complexes and smaller soluble electron carriers involved in a coordinated series of redox reactions in which the potential energy of electrons transferred from reduced donors is successively decreased and used to pump protons from one side of a membrane to the other.
2.An atom's gain of electrons during a redox reaction, either by acceptance of an electron from another atom or by the elctrons in a covalent bond moving closer to the atomic nucleus.
4.A large enzyme complex, located in the inner mitochondrial membrane, that is responsible for conversion of pyruvate to actyl CoA during cellular respiration.
6.A series of eight chemical reactions that starts with citrate and ends with oxaloacetate, which reacts with acetyl CoA to form citrate - forming a cycle that is part of the pathway that oxidizes glucose to CO2.
7.The combined effect of a proton gradient and an electric potential gradient across a membrane, which can drive protons across the membrane. Used by mitochondria and chloroplasts to power ATP synthesis via the mechanism of chemiosmosis.
9.A large membrane-bound protein complex in chloroplasts, mitochondria, and some bacteria that uses the energy of protons flowing through it to synthesize ATP.
10.A soluable iron-containing protein that shuttle electrons between membrane-bound complexes in the mitochondrial electron transport chain.
12.An energetic coupling mechanism whereby energy stored in an electrochemical proton gradient (proton-motive force) is used to drive an energy-requiring process such as production of ATP.
14.The loss of electrons from an atom during a redox reaction, either by donation of an electron to another atom or by the shared electrons in covalent bonds moving farther from the atomic nucleus.

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