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Section 4.2 - Sexual Reproduction (pgs 169 - 180) )

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Across
4.Type of reproduction which involves two parents and results in offspring which are genetically different from each other, and from their parents.
6.The condition in which there is a gain of an extra chromosome due to non-disjunction, resulting in a zygote inheriting 3 copies (instead of the normal 2) of a particular chromosome.
14.A prenatal testing procedure in which a long needle is used to withdraw amniotic fluid (fluid surrounding the fetus) so as to examine the shed fetal cells it contains for chromosomal abnormalities.
15.Haploid reproductive cells
16.The term interkinesis refers to the second period of __ which occurs between Meiosis I and Meiosis II.
17.Type of twins resulting if a single zygote (fertilized egg) divides to form two separate bodies in the first few days of development.
20.Unlike in Interphase I, the DNA does not replicate during the second period of interphase, known as interkinesis.
22.The term __ refers to genetic testing which may be performed on a fetus before birth; i.e. while it is still in the womb.
27.Abbreviated name of the genetic testing technique which can be conducted after the 9th week of pregnancy, and which involves a small piece of the chorion (membrane surrounding the fetus) being removed and examined for chromosomal abnormalities.
28.If a piece of a chromosome breaks off and is lost during meiosis, an error in chromosome structure known as a(n) ____ results.
30.Unlike in anaphase of mitosis, in Anaphase I of meiosis, it is the ___ which separate from each other (2 words).
31.Asexual reproduction process by which as frequently as every twenty minutes a bacterial cell replicates it's DNA and divides to form two new cells (2 words)
32.Number of mature eggs produced by meiosis from each diploid cell in the ovaries of a human female.
Down
1.The condition in which one chromosome is lost due to non-disjunction, resulting in a zygote (fertilized egg) receiving only one copy of a particular chromosome.
2.Term used to describe the chromosome content of cells like gametes, which contain only one chromosome of each homologous pair, or half the normal diploid number.
3.Name given to the diploid cell that results from the union of two haploid gametes.
5.Type of twins which result from two separate eggs being released by a female and separately fertilized by two different sperm.
7.Cell division process by which diploid cells in the sex organs (testes and ovaries) give rise to haploid gametes.
8.The process by which homologous chromosomes align or pair up during Prophase I of meiosis.
9.Genetic disorder caused by a non-disjunctional error in which 3 copies of Chromosome 21 are inherited (i.e. Trisomy 21) instead of the normal 2 (2 words).
10.Name given to the type of gametogenesis (gamete producing) process which gives rise to a single egg cell in human females.
11.In many ways, Meiosis II is similar to ___ because the duplicated chromosomes line up along the equator, the centromeres split, and the sister chromatids separate.
12.Term which refers to the random alignment and separation of homologous chromosomes following Metaphase I of meiosis (2 words).
13.The process by which two gametes unite to form a zygote (fertilized egg).
18.Name given to a change (error) in chromosome structure resulting when a piece breaks off one chromosome and becomes attached to another, non-homologous chromosome, usually during crossing over.
19.Name given to the type of gametogenesis (gamete-producing) process by which sperm cells are produced through meiosis.
21.The failure of homologous chromosomes, or sister chromatids, to separate properly during meiosis is known as ____ (hyphenated word) and will result in an incorrect number of chromosomes being passed on to a gamete.
23.The process by which non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes exchange genes during Prophase I of meiosis (2 words).
24.As a result of crossing over and independent assortment, over 8 ___ different chromosome combinations may be inherited by a single human gamete (egg or sperm) produced by meiosis.
25.Name given to the three small cells which are produced as a result of unequal cytoplasmic division, and which ultimately die and are absorbed by the body during oogenesis in most female animals (2 words - plural)..
26.Prenatal testing procedures like amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) involve taking sample of fetal cells and then making a(n) __ (chromosome picture) which will show most changes in the number or structure of chromosomes.
29.Number of sperm cell that results from each diploid cell in the testes of a male which undergoes meiosis and cytokinesis.

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