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Connie Horton

Deals with the Monarchies of the rising European powers after the Middle Ages

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3.Stephen of Cloyes believes he has a vision from Christ to free the Holy Land.
8.Conflict with Gregory VII over the issue of lay investiture.
11.German empire whose kings considered themselves the successors of Charlemagne and the Roman Caesars.
13.History of early England from Roman times to Alfred.
16.First Saxon King.
17.Appointed Archbishop of Canterbury by Henry II.
18.The "Great"; one of the strongest German kings, used church officials to solidify his power.
21.One of the Germanic tribes that invaded Britain
23.Succeeded the Saxon kings.
27.One of the Germanic tribes that invaded Britain.
28.Small area around Paris ruled by the Capetians.
29.Great Charter
31.To Philip IV: King cannot tax the clergy.
35.3rd Crusade; Frederick Barbarossa drowns.
38.Peace and justice are the primary goals of his reign; led 2 crusades against the Muslims.
39.Known as the "Lionhearted", able warrior and crusader; spent very little time in England.
40.From Clairvaux; most zealous member of the Cistercians.
42.Duke of Normandy. Defeated the English at the Battle of Hastings
43.Pope who issued the call for the Crusades.
1.Taxed the people like no other, tried to tax the clergy also.
2.1066 Battle that altered the course of English history.
4.Early French representative body.
5.Power of the Parliament to control the actions of the king.
6.Chosen by the feudal lords, founder of the Capetian House.
7.King's council.
9.Papal power and prestige reached its zenith under him.
10.Three major opponents during his reign: the French king, the pope, and the English nobles.
12.Earl of Wessex crowned by the English nobles instead of William of Normandy.
13.Able reler, patron of learning, founder of the English navy.
14.Military followers of William the Conqueror, who became his vassals.
15.Last notable Hohenstaufen ruler; ward of Innocent III as a boy.
19.Muslim leader who captured Jerusalem in 1187.
20.Clashed with King John over who would be the next Archbishop of Canterbury.
22.Barbarossa; "Red Beard"; tried to restore the glory and stability of the "Holy Empire"
24.First Plantagent king, expanded the jurisdiction of the royal courts in England.
25.Accusations of crimes.
26.Made England part of the Danish empire; able ruler
30.Survery commissioned by William of Normandy to determine the taxable riches that belonged to him.
32."Augustus"; real founder of France.
33.Conflict with the king over the issue of lay investiture.
34.Known as the "Confessor" for his devotion to God; William of Normandy claimed the throne when he died.
37.Replaced feudal officials, appointed and paid by the king of France.
38.Established the first strong, solid Capetian base from which power was extended to the rest of the kingdom.

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