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Geology Vocabulary Terms

1epicenter  _____a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of the Earth
2focus _____a map that uses contour lines at different elevations to show valleys, hills and other topography of the area and the locations of roads, landmarks and other features
3seismic waves  _____opening in the Earth's surface
4seismograph _____a deep, narrow depression on the Earth
5seismogram _____photographs taken from an elevated position
6triangulation _____caused by shearing forces
7crust  _____where one plate slides under another less dense plate
8lithosphere _____igneous rocks that form on the surface of the Earth
9basalt _____circular movement caused by the differences in temperatures
10granite _____forces that push or squeeze rocks together
11mantle _____vibration record of seismic activity
12asthenosphere _____where two plates slide past each other
13outer core  _____rocks formed when sediments such as sand, silt and clay are under pressure from the layers above them
14inner core  _____igneous rocks that form inside the Earth
15aerial photography  _____a usually light-colored rock that is found in continental crust
16satellite imagery  _____mountain created from forces or stresses where the bending and stretching is applied slowly
17topographic map  _____a rock that contains enough of a valuable mineral to be mined for a profit
18elevation _____lines drawn on a map connecting points of equal elevation
19relief _____forces that pull rocks apart
20slope _____the difference in elevation represented by the space between adjacent contour lines
21contour lines  _____rock pieces, mineral grains, or shell fragments
22contour intervals  _____the difference between changing levels of land
23tension _____where two plates are moving apart
24compression _____a long narrow raised land formation with sloping sides
25shearing _____the branch of geology that studies the folding and faulting of the Earth's crust
26fault _____point on Earth's surface directly above where the energy is released in an earthquake
27normal fault  _____rocks formed deep with the Earth when heat and pressure are applied to igneous or sedimentary rocks
28reverse fault  _____the layer of the earth that forms the Earth's outer surface
29strike-slip fault  _____molten rock in the Earth's crust
30folded mountain _____the natural, repeating processes that change, break down, and re-form rocks
31fault-block mountain  _____instrument used to measure seismic waves
32magma _____solid inorganic material that is usually made of 2 or more minerals
33vent _____method used to identify the epicenter of an earthquake
34lava _____a substance that forms in nature, it is a solid, has a definite chemical makeup, and has a crystal structure
35volcano _____energy spreading out in all directions as vibrations
36Ring of Fire _____forces that cause rocks on either side of faults to push in opposite directions
37lithospheric plates  _____a dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture found in oceanic crust
38convection currents _____the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
39divergent boundary  _____a landscape, or surface, that is tilted or inclined
40convergent boundary _____rocks formed when liquid magma cools
41transform boundary _____the layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core
42subduction zone  _____large sections of the Earth's crust that move
43plate tectonics _____rigid layer of Earth about 100 km thick made of the crust and a part of the upper mantel
44Pangaea _____places in Earth where forces or stresses cause rocks to break
45ridge _____photographs of Earth made by satellites
46trench _____an area in the Pacific Ocean where volcanoes are common
47rock _____fuels formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms that are burned for energy
48igneous _____a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel in the center of the Earth
49intrusive _____the point in the crust, or mantle, where energy is released
50extrusive _____mountain formed when a normal fault uplifts a block of rock
51metamorphic _____mountain that forms around the vent from the cooled lava, ash, cinders, and rock
52sedimentary _____where two plates come together and collide
53sediments _____caused by compression forces
54rock cycle  _____caused by tension forces
55minerals _____magma that reaches the Earth's surface
56ores _____the "supercontinent" from millions of years ago when all the large landmasses were joined together
57fossils fuels  _____a geographic location's height above sea level

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