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ch 1


EXAM 1. Part 1

Savanna general cultural orientation or perspective shared by members of a society
hominins  Enzymes
bipedally  the convention established by Carolus Linnaeus whereby genus and species names are used to refer to species
species The mutual, interactive evolution of human biology and culture; the concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culutrure further influences the direction of biological evolution.
primates introduced concept of extinction to explain the disappearance of animals represented by fossils. Proposed the idea of catastrophism
evolution basic units of the DNA molecule, composed of sugar, a phosphate, and one of four DNA bases
adaptation Simultaneously came to the same conclusion as Darwin; the idea of natural selection
genetic A set of relationships in which all components fall along a single integrated spectrum
culture measurement of human body parts.
worldview The double stranded molecule that conatins the genetic code. Main component of chromosomes
behavior an applied anthropological approach dealing with legal matters.
biocultural evolution structures composed of a form of RNA called ribosomal RNA and protein. Ribosomes are found in a cell’s cytoplasm and are essential to the manufacture of proteins.
anthropology objects or materials made or modified for use by modern humans and their ancestors. The earliest artifacts tend to be tools made of stone, or occasionally bone
applied anthropology behavioral aspects of human adaptation, including technology, traditions, language, religion, marriage patterns, and social roles. A set of learned behaviors transmitted from one generation to the next by nonbiological means.
ethnographies the assembly of chains of amino acids into functional protein molecules. The process is directed by DNA
artifacts DNA found in the mitochondria. Inherited only from the mother
paleoanthropology Swedish naturalist who developed a method of classifying plants and animals. Published Systema Naturae (Systems of nature) standarizing the use of genus and species terminology and establishing the system of binomial nomenclature. also added two more categories: class and order. These four levels created the basis for taxonomy
anthropometry members of the order of mammal primates which includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans
DNA (Deoxyribonnucleic acid) Specialized proteins that initiate and direct chemical reactions in the body.
osteology Reproductive cells (eggs and sperm in animals) developed from the precursor cells in ovaries and testes
bioarchaeology A single stranded molecule. Includes three forms that are essential to protein synthesis: messenger, transfer, and ribosomal
paleopathology A large flat grassland with ascattered trees and shrubs. Savannas are found in many regions of the world with dry and warm to hot climates.
forensic anthropology Developed a structural and functional model of DNA
primatology The most critical mechanism of evolutionary change, first described by charles darwin; refers to genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differences in reproductive success between individuals
continuum a cell formed by the union of an egg cell and a sperm cell. it contains the full complement of chromosomes and hast the potential of developing into an entire organism
ethnocentric Structures contained within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that convert energy derived from nutrients to a form that can be used by the cell
Culture relativism  detailed descriptive studies of human societies. Traditionally the study of a non-western culture
natural selection a anatomical, phsiological, or behavioral responec of organisms or populations to the environment. Adaptations result from evolutionary change(specifically as a result of natural selection)
John Ray colloquial term for members of the evolutionary group that includes modern humans and extinct bipedal relatives
Carolus Linnaeus nucleotides
taxonomy Three-Dimensional molecules that serve a wide variety of functions through their ability to bind to other molecules
binomial nomenclature pertaining to genetics, the study of gene structure and action and the paterns of transmission of traits from parent to offspring. The foundation for evolutionary change
George Luis LeClerc substances that are produced by specialized cells and that travel to other parts of the body, where they influence chemical reactions and regulate various cellular functions
catastrophism pertaining to natural selection, a measure of the relative reproductive success of individuals . Can be measured by an individual’s genetic contribution to the next generation compared with that of other individuals.
Charles Darwin the study of biology and behavior of nonhuman primates
Jean–Babstiste Lamarck considered the founder of modern geology. Introduced the theory of Unifomiarianism; the believe that the earths features are the result of long-term processes that continue to operate in the present as they did in the past. this theory opposed catastrophism and contributed strongly to the concept of immense geological time.
George Cuvier the study of skeletal material.
Thomas Malthus The first person to to explain the basic mechanics of the evolutionary process by developing the theory of natural selection
Alfred Russel Wallace the study of disease and injury in human skeletal remains from archaeological sites
Charles Lyell A structure found in all eukaryotic cells, contains chromosomes (nuclear DNA)
fitness Basically all the cells in the body except the ones involved with reproduction
genome the view that cultures have merits within their own historical and environmental contexts
Proteins the practical application of anthropological and archaeological theories and techniques. For example, a biological anthropologist working in the public health sector
nucleus French naturalist that recognized the dynamic relationship between the external environment and living forms. In his “Natural History” he recognized that different regions have different have unique plants and animals. Recogniized that alterations of external environment were agents of change
RNA a three dimensional structure composed of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and protiens. Also contains several kinds of substructures called organelles, one of which is the nucleus
eukaryotic cells the portion of the cell contained within the cell membrane, excluding the nucleus. Consists of a semifluid material and contains numerous structures involved with cell function
Cytoplasm a change in the genetic structure of a populatin. The term is also sometimes used to refer to the appearnce f a new species.
Protein synthesis the entire genetic makeup of an individual or species
Mitochondria believed that species change was influenced by environmental change. He is best known for his theory of the inheritance of acquired charcteristics
ribosomes Developed concept of species. recognized groups were differentiated by ability to mate with eachother. Also developed second level of classification called Genus
Mitochondrial DNA anything organisms do that involves action in repsonse to internal or external stimuli. The response of an individual, group, or species to its environment
somatic cells the study of skeletal remains from archaeological sites
gametes the branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationsips
zygote the interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier hominins – their chonology, physical structure, archaeological remains, habitats, and etc
James Watson and Francis Crick a group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. members of one species are reporductively isolated from members of all other species (that is they cannot mate with them to produce fertile offspring)
nucleotides  viewing other cultures from the inherently biased perspective of one’s own culture
The DNA is composed of two chains of smaller units called argued for limits to human population growth because in nature the tendency for populations to increase is constantly being held in check by the availability of resources
enzymes the field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology; includes cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, and physical(or biological) anthropology
Replication begins when _____ break the bonds between bases throughout the DNA Molecule, separating the two previously joined strands of nucleotides and leaving their bases exposed the view that the earth geological landscape is the result of violent cataclysmic events
Hormones on two feet: habitualy walking on two legs

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