Begging the Question The argument goes around in circles, no real evidence Non sequitur arguments Base an argument on insufficient evidence. Post Hoc , Ergo Propter Hoc Dont follow a logical sequence Faulty Analogies The writer has changed the focus of the argument from one to another, two ideas that may be related, but are not the same argument. False authority avoiding the question all together, by shifting the focus to another argument. Hasty Generalization Avoiding the real argument by making similar charges against the opponent. Red Herrings Avoiding the real argument by making charges (about anything)against the opponent Ignoring the Question Making the assumption that the audience is following you and agrees with you. Often when we use vague or ambiguous words like “right”, “Justice”, or experience” We arent sure ourselves what they mean. Equivocation Instead of choosing to oppose a main opposing point you choose a smaller one, or weaker one that is easy to argue against Opposing a straw man Reduce complex issues to black and white choices. Most often issues will have a number of choices for resolution. Because writers who use the either- or argument are creating a problem that doesn't really exist, we sometimes refer to this fallacy as a false dilemma Either-Or arguments When a writer tries to explain a situation by comparing it to something to vast, and it doesn't have that much to do with the other. Slippery Slopes When a person who knows something about one field, such as basketball but is casted to do a commercial for cars. Bandwagon appeals Suggest that one step will inevibaly lead to more, eventually negative steps. Ad Hominem Assume a faulty causal relationship. When one event follows another in time, it does not mean that the first event caused the later event. Tu Quoque Try to get everyone on board. The fact tha a lot of people believe it does not make it true.

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