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morphology exam review

shannon bailey

morphological concepts

agreement internal brackets are erased at the end of a level.
blocking vowels required to agree on some feature.
bracket erasure arbitrary division of lexicon into items that require different allomorphs or processes to realize the same inflectional category.
derived environment Two types of compounds recognized in English> Synthetic and primary compounds. Synthetic whose second member is derived with a verbal affix (-ing, -er, -ed) or is a past particle such as breath taking, watch maker, long-tailed, man made, and primary compounds which includes all other types. Compounds made of two nouns, two adjectives, or a noun and an adjective are extremely common, easily created, and freely interpreted. Compounds containing prepositions and verbs are far less productive. > endocentric and exocentric compounds.
endocentric compound formed by combining morphemes, may contribute to trisyllabic laxing.
exocentric compound the theory of stratum ordered morphology accounts for much of the restrictions on affix combinations, but a certain number of real or apparent counterexamples are found.
external argument reduplication is defined as the repetition of all or part of a morpheme to express a morphological category. If an entire morpheme is reduplicated it is complete reduplication.
government  sometimes derivation occurs without an overt affix. Example: noun spy derived from the word spy, where we might have expected an overt suffix –er, but spier does not exist. When verbs are zero derived from nouns they do not shift to a characteristic verb-stress pattern.
haplology Compounds with a head that gives meaning.
internal argument functions as subject
metathesis is a set of all the inflectionally related forms of a single lexeme. The number of forms in a paradigm is generally constant for each syntactic class (noun, verb, etc) in a given language and the paradigm is defined by a relatively small number of morphological features. a list of all the inflected forms of a word with all forms specified in terms of the relevant categories is called a paradigm of that word.
stem classes the situation of having two or more allomorphs. Allomorphs: those variants of a morpheme which are not phonologically predictable. A rule of allomorphy applies to a small number of cases.
vowel harmony arguments of verb besides subject.
zero derivation reduplication is defined as the repetition of all or part of a morpheme to express a morphological category. If only part is reduplicated, it is partial reduplication.
defective paradigm under certain circumstances, prosodic conditions, such as conditions on syllable structure, take precedence over morphological conditions. One of the circumstances is infixation.
paradigm deletion of sound/ syllable similar to adjacent sound or syllable
pluralia tantum characteristic between two items if they must be marked with the same value of certain morphological features.
complete reduplication paradigms can be defective in that they lack one or more forms.
partial reduplication not ‘headed’; meaning not literally derived from parts.
primary compound  interchange of two sounds.
allomorphy a lexical item requires certain morphological features on another item- generally a head governs other items of a phrase.
prosodic morphology hypothesis process that disenables certain derivations from occurring because of existing form.
bracketing paradox  a defective paradigm; such as scissors, pants, trousers. More highly inflected languages have greater possibilities for defective paradigms.

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