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Chapter 1 Key Concepts


Criminal Justice A Brief Introduction7th Edition

civil justice one of two or more sentences that is served in sequence with the other sentences.
booking the civil law,the law of civil procedure,and the array of procedures and activities having to do with private matters.
patriot act the money or property pledged to the court or actually deposited with the court to effect the release of a person from legal custody.
social justice in the strictest sense,the criminal(penal)law,the law of criminal procedure,and the array of procedures and activities having to do with the enforcement of this body of law.
administration of justice the rights guaranteed to all members of american society by the us constitution especially those found in the first ten amendments known as the bill of rights.
crime one who seeks to protect personal freedoms within the process of criminal justice.
information conduct in violation of the criminal laws of a state,the federal government,or a local jurisdiction.
criminal justice a right guaranteed by the fifth,sixth,and fourteenth amendments requiring that criminal justice case processing be conducted with fairness and equity.
conflict model one of two or more sentences that is served at the same time as the other sentences.
indictment a criminal justice perspective that emphasizes individual rights at all stages of justice system processing.
individual rights advocate a writ issued by a judicial officer directing a law enforcement officer to perform a specified act and affording the officer protection from damages if he or she performs it.
concurrent sentence a formal,written accusation submitted to a court by a prosecutor,alleging that a specified person had committed a specified offense.
probable cause the aggregate of all operating and administrative or technical support agencies that perform criminal justice functions.
justice the examination in court of the issues of fact and relevant law in a case for the purpose of convicting or acquitting the defendant.
arraignment a criminal justice perspective that assumes that the systems components function primarily to serve their own interests.
bail a set of facts and circumstances that would induce a reasonably intelligent person to believe that a particular other person has committed a specific crime.
grand jury a group of jurors who have been selected according to law and have been sworn to hear the evidence and to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to bring the accused person to trial,to investigate criminal activity generally,or to investigate the conduct of a public agency or official.
public order advocate the existence within one society of diverse groups that maintain unique cultural identities while frequently accepting and participating in the larger societies legal and political systems.
criminal justice system officially recording an entry into detention after arrest and identifying the person,the place,the time,the reason for the arrest,and the arresting authority.
trial a proceeding before a judicial officer in which three matters must be decided 1. whether a crime was committed,2. whether the crime occurred within territorial jurisdiction of the court,and 3. whether there are reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant committed the crime.
individual rights the principle of fairness.
multiculturalism the performance of any of the following activities detection,apprehension,detention,pretrial release,post trial release,prosecution,adjudication,correctional supervision,or rehabilitation of accused persons or criminal offenders.
due process model a criminal justice perspective that assumes that the systems components work together harmoniously to achieve justice.
social control an idea that embraces all aspects of civilized life and that is linked to fundamental notions of fairness and to cultural beliefs about right and wrong.
warrant a federal law enacted in response to terrorist attacks on the world trade centers and pentagon.
due process a formal written accusation submitted to a court by a grand jury,alleging that a specified person has committed a specified offense,usually a felony.
preliminary hearing one who believes that under certain circumstances involving a criminal threat to public safety,the interests of society should take precedence over individual rights.
consecutive sentence strictly,the hearing before a court having jurisdiction in a criminal case,in which the identity of the defendant is established,the defendant is informed of the charge and of his or her rights,and the defendant is required to enter a plea.
criminology a criminal justice perspective that emphasizes the efficient arrest and conviction of criminal offenders.
consensus model the use of sanctions and rewards within a group to influence and shape the behavior of individual members of that group.
crime control model the scientific study of the causes and prevention of crime and the rehabilitation and punishment of offenders.

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