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Introduction and Fixational Eye Movements

James Kundart, O.D., M.Ed., F.A.A.O.

For Optometry 503 at Pacific University College of Optometry

Heringslaw A partial paresis of this nerve causes a "down and out" eye
aberranttremor For the eyes to move, the shorter name for this law says that one muscle needs to contract, and its antagonist needs to relax
manifestlatent Amblyopic patients with eccentric fixation might show these eye movements
oculomotor This type of nystagmus might only be seen on cover testing, but it's always there
Listingslaw These double the amplitude of error in fixational eye movements
Donderslaw Strabismic patients might show these eye movements
tremors This law says that a single, unique rotation will get the eyes where they have to go
microsaccades These tiny eye movements can correct poor fixation, or cause it
Sherringtonslaw This law says that a constant angle of torsion will get the eyes to any tertiary position
abducens A partial paresis of this nerve causes an extorted eye
trochlear A brainstem stroke might cause these in a hospitalized patient
drifts The only conjugate eye movement affecting fixations
slowdrifts Extraocular muscle "noise" causes these disconjugate eye movements
headmovements The guy named Ewald talked about muscles working together for conjugate eye movements
superior This rectus and oblique muscle are both contralaterally innervated
saccadicintrusions A partial paresis of this nerve causes esotropia

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