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PsyBio Chapter 1

Gina M. Carfagno

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naturalselection study of interactions between the nervous system and the endocrine system
chromosomes accidental alterations in individual genes that arise during chromosome duplication
neuroanatomy to undergo gradual orderly change
vertebrates scientific study of the biology of behavior
dominanttrait study of nervous system disorders
clinical animals with dorsal nerve cords
sexlinkedtraits breeding lines in which interbred membebers always produce offspring with the same trait, generation after generation
homologous scientific study of behavior--of all overt activities of an organism as well as all the internal activities that are presumed to underlie them (e.g., learning, memory, motivation, perception, and emotion)
conspecifics cell formed from the amalgamation of a sperm cell and an ovum
psychology thought to promote the evolution of new species so long as both in the pair react appropriately to the signals of the other
dorsum traits that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genetic material
socialdominance species whose young are fed from mammary glands
brainstem unit of inheritance; for e.g., the section of a chromosome that controls the synthesis of one protein
zygote possessing two identical genes for a particular trait
dichotomoustraits two genes that control the same trait
neuroscience threadlike structures in the cell nucleus that contain the genes; each chromosome is a DNA molecule
nucleotidebases species that spend their larval phase in water and their adult phase on land
biopsychology evolution in unrelated species of similar solutions to the same environmental demands
comparativeapproach portion of the brain that sits on the brain stem; in general, it plays a role in complex adaptive processes (e.g., learning, perception, and motivation)
sexchromosomes one of 14 different orders of mammals: there are five families of them: prosimians, New-World monkeys, Old-World monkeys, apes, hominids
fitness pertaining to illness or treatment
crebrum study of biological processes by comparing different species--usually from the evolutionary perspective
genotype study of biological procseses by comparing different species--usually from the evolutionary perspective
gametes According to Darwin, ability of an organism to survive and contribute its genes to the next generation
neuroendocrinology study of the effects of drugs on neural activity
courtshipdisplay possessing two different genes for a particular trait
truebreedinglines gibbons, organgutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees; evolved from Old-World monkeys; have long arms and grasping hind feet specialized for arboreal travel, have opposable thumbs that aren't long enough to be of much use for precise manipulation
evolve organism's observable traits
evolutionaryperspective traits that occur in one form or the other, never in combination
reptiles study of the chemical bases of neural activity
dna family of primates that includes Homo sapiens (humans), Homo erectus, and Australopithecus
neurochemistry process of cell division that produces cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell
primates animal species grouping
mitosis chordates that possess spinal bones
comparativeapproach approach that focuses on the environmental pressures that likely led to the evolution of the characteristics (e.g., of brain and behavior) of current species
meiosis pair of chromosomes that determine an individual's sex: XX for female, XY for male
apes study of functions and activities of the nervous system
neurophysiology double-stranded, coiled molecule of genetic material; a chromosome
gene trait of a dichotomous pair that is expressed in the phenotypes of heterozygous individuals
neuropathology study of the structure of the nervous system
species having a similar structure because of convergent evolution (a bird's wing and a bee's wing)
phyla cells that receive and transmit electrochemical signals
amphibians process by which the DNA molecule duplicates itself
neuropharmacology long chains of amino acids
recessivetrait part of the brain on which the cerebral hemispheres rest; in general, it regulates reflex activities that are critical for survival (heart rate and respiration)
phenotype trait of a dichotomous pair that is not expressed in the phenotype of heterozygous individuals
neurons center of the back
mammals first vertebrates to lay shell-covered eggs and be covered by dry scales
homozygous division of biopsychology that focuses on the use of functional brain imaging to study the neural bases of human cognition (complex mental processes such as thought, memory, attention, and perception)
cognitiveneuroscience idea that heritable traits that are associated with high rates of survival and reproduction are preferentially passed on to future generations
replication having a similar structure because of a common evolutionary origin (e.g., a human's arm and a bird's wing)
convergentevolution group of organisms that is reproductively isolated from other organisms; members of one species cannot produce fertile offpspring by mating with members of others species
analogous egg cells and sperm cells
chordates members of the same species
mutations genes that contain the information required for the synthesis of a particular protein
proteins class of chemical substances that includes adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine
structuralgenes scientific study of the nervous system
alleles traits that are influenced by genes on the sex chromosomes
heterozygous males establish this stable hierarchy through combative encounters with other males. Dominant males copulate more than nondominant males and thus are more effective in passing on their characteristics to future generations, which is why this type of dominance is important
hominids process of cell division that produces cells (e.g., egg cells and sperm cells) with half the chromosomes of the parent cell

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