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Chapter 3 Sociology Vocabulary words


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ideal culture a norm that if formally defined and enforced by officials
nonmaterial culture group that is part of the dominant culture but that differs from it in some important respects
conditioned judging others in terms of one's own cultural standards
social categories mentally trained
cultural etiquette subculture deliberately and consciously opposed to certain central beliefs or attitudes of the dominant culture
real culture Rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior
hypothesis of linguistic realitivity groupings of persons who share social characteristics
informal sanctions sanctions imposed by persons given special authority
cultural relativism general cultural traits that exist in all cultures
reflex rewards or punishments that can be applied by most members of a group
drive impulse to reduce discomfort
cultural particulars ideas, knowledge, and beliefs that influence people's behavior
society actual behavior patterns of members in a group
taboo accepting norms from a different place even though they may differ from out culture
folkways norms that lack moral significance
sapir-whorf hypothesis broad ideas about what is good or desirable shared by people in a society
Norms a rule of behavior, the violation of which calls for strong punishment
mores the concrete, tangible objects of a culture
ethnocentrism the ways in which a culture expresses universal traits
beliefs reward or punishment used to encourage people to follow norms
Culture automatic reaction to physical stimulus
law looking at things from a point of view different from your own, not making judgements based on your beliefs
sociobiology theory stating that out idea of reality depends largely upon language
material culture norms that have moral dimensions and that should be followed by members of the society
values cultural guidelines that group members claim to accept
cultural universals specific territory inhabited by people who share a common culture
sanctions study of the biological basis of human behavior
subculture says that language is our guide to reality
formal sanctions something that represents something else
symbols ideas about the nature of reality
counterculture knowledge, values, customs, and physical objects that are shared by members of a society

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