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Anatomy, Diseases and Disorders of the Gastrointestional tract

Theresa Klein RN Endoscopy Unit

Words used in the Endoscopy Department describing medical conditions or anatomy of the esophagus and stomach, small intestine, and the large intestine.

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1.A sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum, the beginning of the small intestine which is strongly linked between H. pylori and this disease.
6.A procedure that uses a flexible lighted instrument to look inside the upper GI tract which includes th esophagus, stomach, and duodenum-(the first part of the small intestine.
9.Also known as the cardiac sphincter, which controls the passage of food into the stomach.
10.Disease of the upper GI tract that often worsens reflux symptoms when foods such as citrus fruits, chocolate, caffeine drinks, alcohol, fatty and fried foods, garlic, onions, mint flavorings, spicy foods, tomato-based foods, like spaghetti sauce, salsa, chili, and pizza.
11.This occurs after years of reflux when the normal squmous cells of the esophagus are replaced by columnar cells, a junctional cell or a gastric fundus cell.
14.Object or objects in the esophagus causing acute foreign body obstruction. Coins are common in children and meat in adults.
17.The primary function of this organ is to iniate digestion by using chemical secretions and mechanical movements and serves as a reservoir for swallowed food and liquids as well as digestive secretions..
19.Botulinum toxin used to inject all four quadrants of the lower esophageal sphincter which acts as a paralytic agent (flaccid muscular paralysis) to treat achalasia.
25.Mucosaltears at the gastrointestinal junction associated with prolonged forceful vomiting, trauma, childbirth or as a complication of GERD (Gastointestional Reflux Disease.)
26.Epigastric pain or discomfort.
27.A channel for food going from the mouth to the stomach, which is a hollow muscular tube approximately 10 inches in length and 1 inch diameter in adults.
28.Bleeding that usually asymptomatic, painless, and is life threatening due to increased portal pressure causing voluminous amounts of bleeding.
29.Inflammation of gastric mucosa caused by an irritant(gastric acid, bile reflux, medications or impairment of natural protective mechanisms. Gastritis is classified according to the inflammatory pattern. Acute(erosive and hemorrahagic or Chronic (nonerosive gastritis).
2.A procedure that uses a flexible lighted instrument to look inside the upper GI tract which includes th esophagus, stomach, and duodenum-(the first part of the small intestine.
3.Often associated with alcoholic cirrhosis but may be seen in chronic hepatitis, portal vein thrombosis, primary biliary cirrhosis and biliary atresia.
4.A procedure that uses a flexible lighted instrument to look inside the sigmoid colon and rectum
5.Also known as the hypopharyngeal shincter, which is made up of cricopharyngeal muscle and cricoid cartilage.
7.A chronic and recurrent inflammation affecting the mucosa and submucosa that causes ulceration, hemorrhage as well as congestion and edema.
8.A bacteria that is highly mobile and it has adapted to and avoids acidic nature of the stomach by burrowning beneath the mucosa of the stomach and duodenum causing a peptic ulcer.
12.An abnormal formation of fibrous tissue that is usually at the end of the esophagus and may or may not be circumferential.
13.A tubular structure that extends from the pyloric sphincter to the cecum. It has three sections the c-shaped muscular duoden, the jejunum, and the terminal ileum, which ends at the ileocecal valve.
14.Inflammation with bleeding from erosions in the esophagus.
15.Occurs when the upper part of the stomach and the LES move above the diaphragm, the muscle wall that separates the stomach from the chest.
16.A motility disorder of the large and small intestine and is the second leading cause of absentieeism from work next to the common cold.
18.Any tissue protrusion into the lumen of the intestine which can lead to colon cancer.
20.Most commonly occurs in the elderly and smokers and presents as bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain and usualy spares the rectum and can be drug induced by birth control pills, digitalis, and cocaine and usually resolves spontaneously.
21.A distally progressive band of circular muscular contractions that begin in the pharynx and moves distally at a rate of 3-5 cm per second.
22.A defect of peristalsis in the esophageal body and an elevated lower esophageal sphincter pressure.
23.Painful swallowing
24.Difficulty swallowing

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