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Chapter 2 - Part 1

Michelle Reed

Ciccarelli & White (2009)

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1.chemical substances that block or reduce a cell's repsonse to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters
4.the state of the neuron when not firing a neural impulse
6.nerves coming from the CNS to the voluntary muscles, consisting of efferent neurons
8.a neuron found in the center of the spinal cord that receives information from the afferent neurons and sends commands to the muscles through the efferent neurons
10.synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to fire
11.all nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself
15.branches at the end of the axon
19.division of the PNS consisting of nerves that control all of the involuntary muscles, organs, and glands
21.tubelike structure that carries the neural message to other cells
25.a branch of the life sciences that deals with the structure and function of neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue, especially focusing on their relationship to behavior and listening
29.nerves coming from the sensory organs to the CNS consisting of afferent neurons
30.microscopic fluid-filled space between the synaptic knob of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell
31.holes in the surface of the dendrites or certain cells of the muscles and glands, which are shaped to fit only certain neurotransmitters
33.process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles
34.chemical found in the synaptic vesicles that, when released, has an effect on the next cell
35.a long bundle of neurons that carries messages between the body and the brain and is responsible for very fast, lifesaving reflexes
36.fatty substances produced by certain glial cells that coat the axons of neurons to insulate, protect, and speed up the neural impulse
2.the release of the neural impulse consisting of a reversal of the electrical charge within the axon
3.part of the ANS that restores the body to normal functioning after arousal and is responsible for the day-to-day functioning of the organs and glands
5.grey fatty cells that provide support for the neurons to grow on and around, deliver nutrients to neurons, produce myelin to coat axons, clean up waste products and dead neurons, influence information processessing, and during prenatal development, influence the generation of new neurons
7.the basic cell that makes up the nervous system and that receives and sends messages within that system
9.the connection of the afferent neurons to the interneurons to the efferent neurons, resulting in a reflex action
12.the cell body of the neuron responsible for maintaining life of the cell
13.special cells found in all the tissues of the body that are capable of manufacturing other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear
14.part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
15.a neuron that carries information from the senses to the central nervous system
16.part of the ANS that is responsible for reacting to stressful events and bodily arousal
17.synapse at which a neurotransmitter causes the receiving cell to stop firing
18.division of the PNS consisting of nerves that carry information from the senses to the CNS and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body
19.referring to the fact that a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all
20.saclike structures found inside the synaptic knob containing chemicals
22.an extensive network of specialized cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body
23.bundles of axons coated in myeline that travel together through the body
24.branchlike structures that receive messages from other neurons
26.the ability within the brain to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience or trauma
27.a neuron that carries messages from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body
28.rounded areas on the end of the axon terminals
32.chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell

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