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Chapter 15

Michelle Reed

Ciccarelli & White (2009)

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1.distortion of thinking in which a person draws a conclusion that is not based on any evidence
4.electroconvulsive therapy in which the electrodes are placed on both sides of the head
9.therapy in which the focus is on helping clients recognize distortions in their thinking and replace distorted, unrealistic beliefs with more realistic, helpful thoughts
11.a newer and more general term for therapies based on psychoanalysis with an emphasis on transference, shorter treatment times, and a more direct therapeutic approach
19.action therapies based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior
23.the relationship between therapist and client that develops as a warm, caring, accepting relationship characterized by empathy, mutual respect, and understanding
24.distortions of thinking in which a person blows a negative event out of proportion to its importance while ignoring relevant positive events
27.therapy in which the therapist actively gives interpretations of a client's statements and may suggest certain behavior or actions
29.treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function more effectively
30.therapy style in which the therapist remains relatively neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client, instead remaining a calm, nonjudgmental listener while the client talks
32.the use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behavior
34.a nondirective therapy based on the work of Carl Rogers in which the client does all the talking and the therapist listens
35.psychotherapy that is offered on the Internet
36.cognitive-behavioral therapy in which clients are directly challeneged in their irrational beliefs and helped to restructure their thinking into more rational belief statements
40.an extinction process in which a person is removed form the situation that provides reinforcement from the situation that provides reinforcement for undesirable behavior, usually by being placed in a quiet corner or room away from possible attention and reinforcement opportunities
41.drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and other bizarre behavior
43.therapy style that results from combining elements of several different therapy techniques
45.form of directive insight therapy in which the therapist helps clients to accept all parts of their feelings and subjective experiences, using leading questions and planned experiences such as role-playing
46.form of biomedical therapy to treat severe depression in which electrodes are placed on either one or both sides of a person's head and an electric current is passed through the electrodes that is strong enough to cause a seizure or convulsion
47.surgery performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders
48.technique for treating phobias and other stress disorders in which the person is rapidly and intensely exposed to the fear-provoking situation or object and prevented from making the usual avoidance or escape response
49.a formal, written agreement between the therapist and client in which goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated
50.therapy in which the main goal is to change disordered or inappropriate behavior directly
52.electroconvulsive therapy in which the electrodes are placed only on one side of the head and forehead
53.technique in which a model demonstrates the desired behavior in a step-by-step, gradual process while the client is encouraged to imitate the model
54.distortion of thinking in which a person focuses on only one aspect of a situation while ignoring all other relevant aspects
55.the genuine, open, and honest response of the therapist to the client
56.therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem talks with a psychological professional
2.controversial form of therapy for post traumatic stress disorder and similar anxiety problems in which the client is directed to move the eyes rapidly back and forth while thinking of a disturbing memory
3.learning through the observation and imitation of others
5.the symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams
6.psychoanalytic technique in which a patient was encouraged to talk about anything that came to mind without fear of negative evaluations
7.a group composed of people who have similar problems and who meet together without a therapist or counselor for the purpose of discussion, problem solving, and social and emotional support
8.distortion of thinking in which a person draws sweeping conclusions based on only one incident or event and applies those conclusions to events that are unrelated to the original
10.drugs used to treat and calm anxiety reactions, typically minor tranquilizers
12.behavior technique used to treat phobias, in which a client is asked to make a list of ordered fears and taught to relax while concentrating on those fears
13.an insight therapy based on the theory of Freud emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts
14.occurring when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain topic, either changing the subject or becoming silent
15.therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem is treated with biological or medical methods to relieve symptoms
16.distortion of thinking in which a person takes responsibility or blame for events that are unconnected to the person
17.referring to the warmth, respect, and accepting atmosphere created by the therapist for the client in person-centered therapy
18.therapies that directly affect the biological functioning of the body and brain
19.psychosurgical technique in which an electrode wire is inserted into the cingulated gyrus area of the brain with the guidance of a MRI machine for the purpose of destroying that area of brain tissue with electric current
20.therapies in which the main goal is helping people to gain insight with respect to their behavior, thoughts, and feelings
21.action therapy in which the goal is to help clients overcome problems by learning to think more rationally and logically
22.the strengthening of a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
25.therapy technique in which the therapist restates what the client says rather than interpreting those statements
26.the use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of psychological disorders
28.psychosurgery in which the connection of the prefrontal lobes of the brain to the rear portions are severed
31.the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a behavior
33.in psychoanalysis, the tendency for a patient or client to project positive or negative feelings for important people from the past onto the therapist
37.the use of objects called tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumuluated and exchanged for desired items or privileges
38.drugs used to treat depression and anxiety
39.a form of group therapy in which family members meet together with a counselor or therapist to resolve problems that affect the family
42.the actual content of one's dream
44.form of behavioral therapy in which an undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior
51.the ability of the therapist to understand the feelings of the client

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