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Chapter 9 Vocab

Taylor Lewandowski

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2.a nerve fiber that carries impulses toward the central nervous system
7.any of several chemical substances, as epinephrine or acetylcholine, that transmit nerve impulses across a synapse to a postsynaptic element, as another nerve, muscle, or gland.
11.one of the two types of non-nervous tissue (glia) found in the central nervous system, having macrophage activity
12.the compact area of a nerve cell that constitutes the nucleus and surrounding cytoplasm, excluding the axons and dendrites.
13.one or more bundles of fibers forming part of a system that conveys impulses of sensation, motion, etc., between the brain or spinal cord and other parts of the body.
17.any of certain masses of gray matter in the brain, as the basal ganglia.
20.A specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the cell body and its processes, the axon and dendrites.
23.the portion of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord.
24.A fatty, axon-enwrapping sheath that serves to speed up neural conduction, formed by concentric layers of Schwann's cell (peripheral) or oligodendrocyte (CNS) membranes
25.the membrane potential to which a membrane must be depolarized to initiate an action potential.
26.an efferent nerve that stimulates muscle contraction.
1.a region where nerve impulses are transmitted and received, encompassing the axon terminal of a neuron that releases neurotransmitters in response to an impulse, an extremely small gap across which the neurotransmitters travel, and the adjacent membrane of an axon, dendrite, or muscle or gland cell with the appropriate receptor molecules for picking up the neurotransmitters.
3.an organ or cell that carries out a response to a nerve impulse.
4.a sensory nerve ending that responds to a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism.
5.the membrane potential of a cell that is not exhibiting the activity resulting from a stimulus
6.the system of nerves and ganglia that innervates the blood vessels, heart, smooth muscles, viscera, and glands and controls their involuntary functions, consisting of sympathetic and parasympathetic portions.
8.Ependymal cells are the cells which line the ventricles of the brain. They are typically cuboidal and often have cilia
9.the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system
10.the part of the nervous system comprising the brain and spinal cord.
13.small gaps in the myelin sheath of medullated axons
14.The part of the nervous system that controls voluntary movements in the body, such as those performed by the skeletal muscles (see muscular system). The somatic nervous system also includes the special nerve fibers that help keep the body in touch with its surroundings, such as those involved in touch, hearing, and sight.
15.a glial cell involved in the formation of the myelin sheaths of nerve cell axons
16.the change in electrical potential that occurs between the inside and outside of a nerve or muscle fiber when it is stimulated, serving to transmit nerve signals.
18.the appendage of the neuron that transmits impulses away from the cell body.
19.a class of cells in the brain and spinal cord that form a supporting structure for the neurons and provide them with insulation.
21.the branching process of a neuron that conducts impulses toward the cell.
22.a star-shaped neuroglial cell of ectodermal origin.

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