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Evolution Chapter 12

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3.The fitness of a genotype relative to (as a proportion of) the fitness of a reference genotype, which is often set at 1.0.
5.A1 has negative frequency, stable but non trivial equilibrium, delta p can be negative
9.do not expect allele frequencies to change and selective forces are equal at p and delta p
11.when the allele frequency reaches 1 on the x axis
15.A phenomenon in which different homozygotes in a single population are best adapted to different microhabitats or resources.
23.A reduction in fitness caused by a correlated effect of a feature that provides an increment in fitness (i.e., a benefit).
26.A source of natural selection that opposes another source of selection on a trait.
27.Reduction or elimination of DNA sequence variation in the vicinity of a mutation that has been fixed by natural selection relatively recently.
29.The arithmetic average fitness of all individuals in a population, usually relative to some standard.
30.The manifestation of higher fitness by heterozygotes than by homozygotes at a specific locus.
31.That allele frequency, or combination of allele frequencies at two or more loci, at which the mean fitness of a population has a (local) maximum. Also, the mean phenotype (for one or more characters) that maximizes mean fitness
1.The manifestation of lower fitness by heterozygotes than by homozygotes.
2.Change in allele frequencies within a population from one to another local maximum of mean fitness by passage through states of lower mean fitness.
4.if value of W1 is higher than wbar, what occurs?
6.the change in allele frequency between generation is represented by
7.A form of natural selection that maintains polymorphism at a locus within a population.
8.A plot of mean fitness against allele frequency, representing a “surface” or “hillside.”
10.The apparent but erroneous superiority of a heterozygote at an observed locus resulting from masking of a recessive deleterious allele
12.Elimination of deleterious alleles from a population
13.The amount by which the fitness of a genotype differs from that of a reference genotype.
14.A mode of natural selection in which the fitness of each genotype varies as a function of its frequency in the population.
16.Elimination of deleterious mutations in a region of the genome; may explain low levels of neutral sequence variation.
17.relationship between phenotypic values and fitness, how greatly the trait affects fitness
18.Selection against phenotypes that deviate in either direction from an optimal value of a character.
19.The increment in fitness (survival and/or reproduction) provided by an allele or a character state.
20.A1 dominant and A2 deleterious recessive
21.Selection for a value of a character that is higher or lower than its current mean value.
22.p is small, nontrivial but not stable, delta p is negative
24.The per capita growth rate of a genotype.
25.The expression by two alleles in heterozygous condition of a phenotypic value for some character that lies outside the range of the two corresponding homozygotes.
28.How is the mean relative fitness represented mathematically?

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