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Plants, Genes, and More

Laura Hood

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6.membrane-bound structure found in the stroma of chloroplasts, which form stacks, called granum.
9.structure that forms at the middle of the dividing cells at the end of mitosis and directs the assembly of vesicles into a cell plate.
10.where the cell does not go through G2 and M phase, but instead continues to replicate its DNA and grow in the G1 and S phase. This leads to many copies of homologous chromosomes, polyploidy, and larger cells and is essential for plant growth.
12.addition of sugars to proteins. Proteins in the rough ER will be degraded if they do not undergo this.
13.an extended epidermal cell that grows out from the outer layer of cells and branches, such as a hair. More branching of these is correlates to a higher # of homologous chromosomes.
14.enzyme that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides.
18.protein that carries cargo along cytoskeleton elements in a one-way direction. Plants only contain the type, kinesin, which moves along microtubules.
19.phase where chromosomes move to opposite poles of the dividing cell as the spindle contracts.
20.the area where two sister chromatids are joined, often consisting of repetitive DNA, and is also where the spindle fibers connect to the kinetochore during division.
22.short repetitive DNA at the ends of chromosome and forms a loop that protects the chromosome from being joined to another and also is added to ends to prevent the chromosome from shortening.
23.protein that plays a role in regulation of the cell cycle by activating a cyclin-dependent kinase complex.
25.approach that starts with a phenotype and tries to discover the gene that controls it. (2 Words)
26.structure in a plant cell that stores water, products, and by-products.
27.enzyme that adds a phosphate group to a substrate, phosphorylating it.
28.process that results in four haploid cells and undergoes two rounds of division, the first where homologous chromosomes are separated and the second where sister chromatids are separated. This type of division is necessary for formation of gametes.
29.a copy of a replicated chromosome, which is paired with another copy.
30.occurs when an organisms has multiple genes in its genome that perform the same role so that when one is knocked out, the other genes still function and no difference is seen. (2 Words)
1.sum of all genetic content in an organism’s haploid set of chromosomes in the nucleus or organelle.
2.portion of DNA that is not spliced out during RNA processing and is attached to other remaining pieces.
3.in animals, a contractile ring forms at the spindle equator that pinches the two cells apart from each other. In plants, the phragmoplast forms at the spindle equator and directs the assembly of vesicles to form a cell plate.
4.enzyme that once activated by cyclin regulates the cell cycle by adding a phosphate group to involved proteins. (3 Words)
5.where an organism’s chromosomes are a combination of sets from two or more different species.
7.portions of DNA that is packed very tightly inhibiting it from being expressed.
8.where an organism acquires a duplicated set of chromosomes.
11.element of DNA packaging where 146 bp’s of DNA is wrapped twice around a core of eight histones.
15.acts as the marker for the spindle equator where the cell wall will form. It forms during interphase, composing of actin and microtubules and disappears in early prophase, but the cell remembers where is was. (2 Words)
16.enzyme that plays a large role in transcription, binding to DNA, and conducting the formation of a complementary RNA chain. (2 Words)
17.approach that starts with a gene and tries to discover its function by observing phenotypic affects if normal or mutated. (2 Words)
21.portions of DNA that is not tightly packed, making it “active,” able to be expressed.
24.phase where nuclear membranes begin to form around the daughter nuclei. In the middle of the plant dividing cells, bundles of actin and microtubules form which will lead to the phragmoplast.

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