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The Molecules of Cells


Bio 101- The Molecules of Cells

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1.A steroid that is an important component of animal cell membranes and that acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other steroids, such as hormones.
8.A synthetic variant of the male hormone testosterone that mimics some of its effects. (2 Words)
11.A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules.
12.The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain. (2 Words)
22.A carbohydrate polymer of many monosaccharides (sugars) linked by dehydration reactions.
24.A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single-stranded; functions in protein synthesis, gene regulation, and as the genome of some viruses.
25.An unsaturated fat, formed artificially during hydrogenation of vegetable oils, which is linked to health risks. (2 Words)
27.A polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular structures and activities. (2 Words)
31.The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits. (2 Words)
32.A large molecule consisting of many identical or similar monomers linked together by covalent bonds.
34.A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
35.A functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded into a specific three-dimensional structure.
38.A sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharides linked by a dehydration reaction.
39.An organic compound composed only of the elements carbon and hydrogen.
40.A chemical group consisting of a carbon atom liked by a double bond to an oxygen atom.
42.A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and involved in chemical reactions. (2 Words)
43.A chemical group consisting of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom.
44.A macromolecule, usually a protein, that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
45.The covalent bond between two amino acid units in a polypeptide, formed by a dehydration reaction. (2 Words)
47.A chemical group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms.
48.A fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail and thus lacks the maximum number of hydrogen atoms; do not solidify at room temperature. (3 Words)
1.A structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls composed of glucose monomers. ___ molecules are linked into cable-like fibrils.
2.A chemical compound containing the element carbon and usually the element hydrogen. (2 Words)
3.The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands interwound into a spiral shape. (2 Words)
4.A chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water
5.An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in liver and muscle cells;
6.The simplest carbohydrate; a simple sugar with a molecular formula that is generally some multiple of CH2O.
7.The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain. (2 Words)
9.An organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar covalent bonds, making the compound mostly hydrophobic.
10.The third level of protein structure; the overall three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain. (2 Words)
13.A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds and the maximum number of hydrogen atoms are attached to the carbon skeleton; solidify at room temperature. (3 Words)
14.A polymer (chain) of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
15.The chain of carbon atoms that forms the structural backbone of an organic molecule. (2 Words)
16.A lipid made up by glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group, giving the molecule two nonpolar hydrophobic tails and a polar hydrophilic head.
17.A structural polysaccharide found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of arthropods.
18.A process in which a protein unravels, losing its specific structure and hence function.
19."Water-Loving"; Pertaining to polar or charged molecules (or parts of molecules) that are soluble in water.
20.Member of the class of biological molecules consisting of a single-monomer sugars, two-monomer sugars, and polymers.
21.A storage polysaccharide in plants; a polymer of glucose.
23."Water-Fearing"; pertaining to nonpolar molecules (or parts of molecules) that do not dissolve in water.
26.A chemical group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms.
28.An organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group; serves as the monomer of proteins. (2 Words)
29.A chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule (2 Words)
30.Organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and, therefore, different properties.
33.A chemical group consisting of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms.
36.The sub-unit that serves as a building block of a polymer.
37.A chemical group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
41.A type of lipid whose carbon skeleton is in the form of four fused rings with various chemical groups attached.
42.A lipid composed of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; function as energy-storage molecules.
46.A double-stranded helical nucleic acid molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). Capable of replicating.

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