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Vocabulary 8 & 9

Kaleigh Best

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1.most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel
4.green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants; chlorophyll a can participate directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy.
11.sequence of electron-carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
15.cluster of several membrane proteins found in the mitochondrial cristae (and bacterial plasma membrane) that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen-ion concentration gradient to make ATP. ATP synthases provide a port through which hydrogen ions diffuse into the matrix of a mitrochondrion.
17.an organic acid, a ketone, as well as the simplest of the alpha-keto acids.
18.second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate
19.catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end-product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
21.a coenzyme found in all living cells.
22.conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in glucose or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes.
24.Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it.
26.also known as (ATP) adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed.
28.Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen.
29.uses energy from the sun to make food
30.light-harvesting unit in photosynthesis, located on the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast and consisting of the antenna complex, the reaction-center chlorophyll a, and the primary electron acceptor.
2.reactions of the first stage of photosynthesis, in which light energy is captured by chlorophyll molecules and converted to chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH molecules.
3.best known for his identification of two important metabolic cycles: the urea cycle and the citric acid cycle.
5.by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate
6.chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide
7.organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products
8.American chemist most famed for discovering the Calvin cycle along with Andrew Benson and James Bassham,
9.famous for having discovered oxygen.
10.considered to be "the founder of pneumatic chemistry".[
12.biological process in which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose are converted into cellular energy
13.splitting of glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis is the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration.
14.best known for showing that light is essential to photosynthesis and thus having discovered photosynthesis.
16.colored substance that absorbs light over a narrow band of wavelengths.
20.organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water
23.flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy
25.used to indicate the energy content of food,
27.fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.

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