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Psychologists A-Z review

Ty Oreskovic

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1.Studied gender differences; believes females differ from males both in being less concerned with viewing themselves as separate individuals and in being more concerned with "making connections" .
4.Swiss psychologist who pioneered the study of cognitive development in children; fourstage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation
9.behaviorism; pioneer in operant conditioning; behavior is based on an organism's reinforcement history; worked with pigeons
11.studied split brain patients; showed that left/right hemispheres have different functions
13.social psychology; proved peoples behavior depends to a large extent on the roles they are asked to play
16.memory researcher first woman president of the american psych association and to study psych at harvard
17.Cognition- theorized the critical period hypothesis for language acquisition
19.A student of Freud who split from the Psychoanalytic Society because of his disagreements with Freud, especially his view of the collective unconscious.
24.research on hypnosis especially in regard to pain control/ developed hypnosis susceptibility scales
26.behaviorist, demonstrated that rats that had explored a maze that contained food while they were not hungry were able to run it correctly on the first trial when they entered it having now been made hungry
27.Investigated social conformity
28.Studied psychosocial development; stages include infancy, toddlerhood, preschooler, elementary school, adolescence, young adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood; each stage is accompanied by a particular issue that must be resolved.
29.Conducted longitudinal studies on temperament (infancy to adolescence)
30.An expert in emotional research and nonverbal communication. Well known for his studies of emotional expression and the physiology of the face
2.cognition and memory; studied repressed memories and false memories; showed how easily memories could be changed and falsely created by techniques such as leading questions and illustrating the inaccuracy in eyewitness testimony
3.behaviorism; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
5.Theory of multiple intelligences. Project Spectrum is a natural assessment of the intelligences in young children. MI was not originally meant for education, but is widely accepted, though criticized for lack of data.
6.Developed the "visual cliff" experiment; showed that depth perception cues are innate.
7.Developmental Psychology- Stage theory of moral development (preconventional, conventional, postconventional)
8.believed personality is formed in large part from modeling our behaviors on those we observe around us/ Bobo dolls
10.Developmental Psychology- experimented with infant monkeys and attachment
12.Studied attachment differences by observing mother-infant pairs over a 6 mo. time period; found that secure infants have good bonds with mothers and the reverse is also true.
14.a Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research into learned behavior (conditioning) who discovered classical conditioning
15.revised Binet's IQ test and established norms for American children; tested group of young geniuses and followed in a longitudinal study that lasted beyond his own lifetime to show that high IQ does not necessarily lead to wonderful things in life
18.humanistic psychologist who developed a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological growth
20.child development; investigated how culture & interpersonal communication guide development; zone of proximal development; play research
21.referred to as the father of clinical psychology/ extensive theory of personality development (psycho analysis) is the cornerstone for modern psychological thought and consists of (1) the psychosexual stages of development, (2) the structural model of personality (id, ego, superego), and (3) levels of consciousness (conscious, subconscious, and unconscious).
22.Testing and Individual Differences/ Developmental Psychology- creator of the first intelligence test
23.german physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879
25.Broke away from Freud because he believed social motives, rather than sexual drives, motivated people the most/ neo-freudian; inferiority complex - we are all striving for superiority in the eyes of others

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