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The Scientific Revolution

Mr. Newell

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1.believed human beings were naturally cruel, selfish, and greedy; felt that governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness.
6.Native Americas were decimated by this after the arrival of the Europeans
8.finds strait through the New World; reaches Asia; is killed, but surviving crew makes first circumnavigation of the Earth
11.wrote "Guide to Geography"
13.conquers the Inca
14.observed moon’s rough surface, Jupiter’s four moons, Venus’ phases; faced the Inquisition for writing Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems.
15.the 3 G's; motives for European exploration
16.women of the Enlightenment wanted to have the same rights as ___.
17.abook that Europeans relied on for understanding nature during the Middle Ages.
18.believed the true basis of government was a social contract among free people; felt the purpose of government was to protect people’s natural rights; stated that if the government failed to respect people’s rights, it could be overthrown.
20.first European to sail to India
24.defeat of this marked the shift in power from Spain to England.
27.claimed Brazil for Portugal
28.was greatly influenced by the Enlightenment
29.by studying detailed records and using mathematics, discovers that the planets orbits are oval.
30.conquers the Aztecs
31.said people could gain knowledge only if they rid their minds of false beliefs
2.these factors: Renaissance thinkers questioning traditional learning and observing nature for themselves; translations of classical texts exposed scholars to new ideas; discoveries showed that accepted ideas could be wrong; contributed to the
3.native woman who helped Spanish defeat the Aztecs
4.the Americas
5.a Greek philosopher that Europeans relied on for understanding nature during the Middle Ages.
7.believed in reforming society in the name of justice and human happiness; championed religious tolerance; believed “man’s most cherished right” is to be governed by law; defender of freedom of speech
9.the ___led to a vast increase in European knowledge of the world
10.opens a navigation school and sends explorers down the coast of Africa
12.first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa
19.a period beginning in the 1600s in which educated Europeans changed their outlook on life by seeing reason as the key to human progress
21.sails west to reach the East; discovers The New World
22.stressed the rights of the accused people to fair treatment; believed that accused should receive a fair and speedy trial
23.reasoned that the same force that causes an apple to fall from a tree, keeps planets in their orbits; wrote Principia which stated the law of gravity and three laws of motion.
25.believed that to protect liberty, power should be divided among three branches of government
26.after the death of the indigineous peoples of the New World, these people were brought in to replace them as workers.
27.states that the sun is the center of the universe in 1543.

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