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Chapter 8 Vocabulary

Hannah Collins

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7.A set of three nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA codon.
10.Forms part of ribosomes, a cell's protein factory.
11.The process of copying a sequence of DNA to producea complementary strand of RNA.
16.An intermediate message that is translated to form a protein.
18.A mutation in which one nucleotide is substituted for another. That is, an incorrect nucleotide is put in the place of the correct nucleotide.
19.Enzymes that bond nucleotides together in a chain to make a new RNA molecule.
21.A molecular biology that states that information flows in one direction; from DNA to RNA to proteins.
22.Ribonucleic Acids: a chain of nucleotides, each made of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base.
23.Agents in the environment that can change DNA
24.Two strands of DNA wind around each other like a twisted ladder.
25.The small units, or monomers that make up DNA.
26.A change in the organism’s DNA.
1.Involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence.
2.Nucleotide segments that intervene or occur BETWEEN exons.
3.Nucleotide segments that code for parts of the protein.
4.A DNA segment that allows a gene to be transcribed; helps RNA polymerase find where a gene starts.
5.A region of DNA that includes a promoter, an OPERATOR, and one or more structural genes that code for all the proteins needed to do a specific task.
6.Signal the END of the amino acid chain.
8.Brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make the growing protein.
9."Phage", takes over a bacterium's genetic machinery and directs it to make more viruses.
12.Thymine (T) always pairs with Adenine (A), Cytosine (C) always pairs with Guanine (G).
13.The process by which DNA is copied in the cell cycle.
14.Enzymes that bond the new nucleotides.
15.A three- nucleotide sequence that CODES for an amino acid.
17.The process that converts or translates an mRNA message into a polypeptide.
20.Signals the START of translation and the amino acid methionine.

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