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Biology Unit 2

Mrs. Molatore

No pluralized words. No spaces are included.

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2.a portion of the cell nucleus made up of DNA and proteins; it is the carrier of the genes in inheritance
5.the spiral-staircase structure characteristic of the DNA molecule (2 Words)
8.any one of 20 different organic molecules that contain a carboxyl and an amino group and that combine to form proteins (2 Words)
9.an RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to the growing end of a polypeptide chain during translation (2 Words)
10.a haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote
11.in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA
13.the transfer of genetic material in the form of DNA fragments from one cell to another or from one organism to another
14.a region of tRNA that consists of three bases complementary to the codon of mRNA
15.a mutation in which only one nucleotide or nitrogenous base in a gene is changed (2 Words)
17.a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis (2 Words)
18.in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
22.the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics (2 Words)
27.the complete genetic material contained in an individual
28.an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule (2 Words)
29.the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template; particularly the process of synthesizing RNA by using one strand of a DNA molecule as a template
30.a virus that infects bacteria
31.the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA (2 Words)
32.a single-stranded RNA molecule that encodes the information to make a protein (2 Words)
1.a segment of DNA that is located in a chromosome and that codes for a specific hereditary trait
3.the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains
4.a change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule
6.cytosine pairs with guanine and adenine pairs with thymine in DNA, and that adenine pairs with uracil in RNA (2 Words)
7.a section of DNA that does not code for an amino acid and that is transcribed into RNA but is removed before it is translated
12.the nucleotide bases in one strand of DNA or RNA that are paired with those of another strand; adenine pairs with thymine or uracil, and guanine pairs with cytosine (3 Words)
16.a mutation, such as the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in a coding sequence, that results in the misreading of the code during translation because of a change in the reading frame (2 Words)
19.in DNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal
20.the portion of the DNA sequence in a gene that contains the sequence of amino acids in a chain and the beginning and the end of a coding sequence
21.the process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function
23.an organelle that contains most of the RNA in the cell and that is responsible for ribosome function (2 Words)
24.an enzyme that starts (catalyzes) the formation of RNA by using a strand of a DNA molecule as a template (2 Words)
25.a nucleotide sequence on a DNA molecule to which an RNA polymerase molecule binds, which initiates the transcription of a specific gene
26.the duplication of a DNA molecule

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