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Orchestra Instruments

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4.in the orchestra are divided into two groups, first and second. Both are written as they sound, with the common G-clef.
7.parts are written with the F-clef, the tenor clef, and the G-clef. In many scores the notes written with the G-clef are notated an octave higher than they sound.
8.really not a horn at all, but an alto oboe. Melancholy and somber in its lower register; the upper little used.
10.the bass of the woodwind instruments. Lower register sonorous; upper good for melodies, though somewhat veiled and mysterious; between them are a few rather unsatisfactory notes.
11.the middle register is capable of great variety of expression. The lower cannot be had in piano or pianissimo. The oboe is less agile than the flute and clarinet. Its tone is peculiarly penetrating, so that the tones given to it in a chord for woodwind instruments stand out with special prominence.
12.two clarinets are in common use, the clarinet in Bb, and the clarinet in A. The first sounds a major second lower than written, the second a minor third lower. The lower register, called the “chalumeau” after an obsolete wind instrument, is peculiarly full and mellow. Then comes a break in which the tone is dull and the fingering difficult.
13.the best register for quiet solo passages is the middle. The upper register is brilliant in fortissimo, but can be effective in soft passages. The lower tones are little used in solo save for special dramatic effects. They are often convenient for filling n harmony with other wind instruments.
15.the most sonorous register is that lying just above and below middle C. Below the regular range, after a slight gap, there are a few so-called “pedal notes.” The trombone parts are written as sounded, but for higher notes the tenor clef is used, which places middle C on the fourth line of the staff. The bass trombone has the same range a minor third lower.
16.made in Bb and A, like the ordinary instrument, but sounding an octave lower. The bass clarinet is A is less used than formerly. The lower two octaves are of excellent, full tone, and can be sounded in a beautiful pianissimo; the upper register is seldom used, being better on the ordinary clarinet. The bass-clarinet in Bb sounds a major ninth lower than written.
1.most modern orchestras have at least half are provided with a fifth string tuned to low C, increasing their range by four notes. The part is written an octave higher than it sounds.
2.the lowest octave of the range is weak, the tones being much better on the flute. The best register is the second octave. Above that the tone is piercing, and can be produced only in fortissimo. The piccolo sounds an octave higher than written.
3.a non-transposing instrument, but its lower notes are written with the alto clef, which places middle C on the third line.
5.the horn in commonest use is that in F, sounding a fifth lower than written. As the “embouchure” (tension of the lips and pressure of breath) varies for different parts of the range, the horns are arranged in pairs, the first horn playing higher than the second, third higher than the fourth, etc.
6.used only for bass, or for melodic phrases in low register. This instrument, sometimes called contrafagotto, sounds an octave lower than written.
9.modern trumpet players are more and more following the French custom of using the trumpet in C, instead of those in Bb and A. IN Germany those in Eb, E, and F are sometimes used. Like the horns, the trumpets are arranged in pairs, the first of each pair taking the higher, and the second the lower tones. The trumpet has unfortunately been supplanted in many of our orchestras by the cornet, and instrument of inferior tone, but easier to play.
14.the tuba in most common used, sometimes called the Bombardon is the bass of the trombone choir, and is written as it sounds, in the F-clef. There is also a ‘tuba in Bb’ or Euphonium, pitched a fifth higher, and a Contra bass tuba, pitched a fourth lower. The “Serpent” and the “Ophicleide” are obsolete instruments which used to take the place now occupied by the tuba.

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