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Weathering, Erosion, Deposition

G. Oakley

Earth Science Terms associated with weathering, erosion, and deposition.

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1.changes in this quantity cause thermal expansion and eventual cracking of rocks
3.light gray-brown soil containing less clay or chemical weathering, common to western U.S.
5.landform created by tectonic activie
6.describes a hill that is 'stepped' to reduce erosion from agriculture
7.primary agent of chemical weathering
8.describes a soil profile that contains very little organic matter or horizon layers
9.U-shaped feature formed when a glacier scours out an area between mountains
12.erosional agents that include plants and animals
16.landform shaped by erosion over time
18."make up" of the rock that affects its weathering rate
19.combination of the O & A horizons
21.describes island sand deposits along coastal area
22.chemical sedimentary rock most affected by the acidity of precipitation
26.describes precipitation (ex: rain) whose pH < 5.6 normal level
27.weathering that breaks rocks apart without changing the rock's composition
28.meaning of the "O" in O horizon
29.decomposition and disintegration of rock at or near Earth's surface
31.describes the rock below the soil that weathers to produce the overlying soil
36.soil classification that consists of a fairly equal mix of clay, silt, and sand
37.an individual layer of soil
39.medium sediments in soil
40.parallel scratch in bedrock left behind when glaciers melt and retreat
41.largest sediment partilcles that are classified as soil
42.formed when glacier melt runoff sorts sediments by size
45.earth or mud movement that resembles a thick liquid
46.acid formed when carbon dioxide from the atmosphere dissolves into precipitation
48.a mixture of weathered rock/minerals, organic matter, water, and air
50.describes the numerous lakes formed by glaciers when ice chunks break off, are buried in sediments, then melt leaving a depression
52.deposit, often at the base of mountains, having a characteristic 'fan' shape
53.smallest sediments in soil that can take days to settle out
54.describes soil that contains well-developed layers
55.slowest mass movement of soil
56.type of plowing that follows the curve of a hill to reduce erosion
57.most powerful agent of erosion
1.describes the "lay of the land"... steeper or flatter
2.also known as sheeting or slabbing, it's large blocks that break off an exposed igneous intrusion
3.brown-red soil rich in iron oxide and aluminum clays common to eastern U.S.
4.thick layer of fine sediment particles deposited by wind in the U.S. midwest
10.the organic matter and microscopic life taken together in the O horizon
11.when water freezing in cracks of rocks causes them to be broken into smaller pieces
13.orange-red soils containing little organic matter which dries very hard, common to tropical areas
14.dropping of sediments in new locations
15.deposit at the mouth of a river, often triangular in shape
17.large rock/boulder moved and deposited by a glacier
20.the combined vertical layers that make up soil
23.crystal that can form and grown in rock cracks and help break them apart
24.chemical weathering that occurs when oxygen reacts with iron in rocks, making them more easily-crumbled
25.removal of weathered rock, soil, or sediments from its original location
30.classification of soil based on its mineral content (color)
32.erosion that follows 'sheet erosion', it begins to form small channels
33.cone-shaped debris pile at the base of a steep slope formed by rock falls/slides
34.another term for the B horizon
35.a mound of sediments pushed up, then left behind by a retreating glacier
38.row of trees planted in areas to reduce wind erosion
43.unsorted sediments left behind by melting glacier
44.rapid downslope movement of materials when soil/rock separates from underlying layers
46.most important weathering rate factor
47.the removal/washing away (down) of clay and minerals from the A horizon as rainwater seeps through
49.a large river or sheet of ice that can produce large scale erosion features
51.the 'feel' of soil based on its content of clay, silt, and sand (ex: clay, loam, etc.)

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