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Karen Bates

Geology Vocabulary Terms

1epicenter  _____a substance that forms in nature, it is a solid, has a definite chemical makeup, and has a crystal structure
2focus _____a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of the Earth
3seismic waves  _____forces that cause rocks on either side of faults to push in opposite directions
4seismograph _____the difference between changing levels of land
5seismogram _____energy spreading out in all directions as vibrations
6triangulation _____circular movement caused by the differences in temperatures
7crust  _____opening in the Earth's surface
8lithosphere _____vibration record of seismic activity
9basalt _____a dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture found in oceanic crust
10granite _____forces that pull rocks apart
11mantle _____mountain that forms around the vent from the cooled lava, ash, cinders, and rock
12asthenosphere _____a long narrow raised land formation with sloping sides
13outer core  _____caused by compression forces
14inner core  _____rocks formed when liquid magma cools
15aerial photography  _____igneous rocks that form inside the Earth
16satellite imagery  _____rocks formed deep with the Earth when heat and pressure are applied to igneous or sedimentary rocks
17topographic map  _____a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel in the center of the Earth
18elevation _____where two plates are moving apart
19relief _____mountain formed when a normal fault uplifts a block of rock
20slope _____the point in the crust, or mantle, where energy is released
21contour lines  _____where one plate slides under another less dense plate
22contour intervals  _____the layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core
23tension _____rock pieces, mineral grains, or shell fragments
24compression _____method used to identify the epicenter of an earthquake
25shearing _____rocks formed when sediments such as sand, silt and clay are under pressure from the layers above them
26fault _____a usually light-colored rock that is found in continental crust
27normal fault  _____the difference in elevation represented by the space between adjacent contour lines
28reverse fault  _____a landscape, or surface, that is tilted or inclined
29strike-slip fault  _____caused by tension forces
30folded mountain _____an area in the Pacific Ocean where volcanoes are common
31fault-block mountain  _____photographs taken from an elevated position
32magma _____a rock that contains enough of a valuable mineral to be mined for a profit
33vent _____fuels formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms that are burned for energy
34lava _____places in Earth where forces or stresses cause rocks to break
35volcano _____instrument used to measure seismic waves
36Ring of Fire _____photographs of Earth made by satellites
37lithospheric plates  _____large sections of the Earth's crust that move
38convection currents _____the layer of the earth that forms the Earth's outer surface
39divergent boundary  _____lines drawn on a map connecting points of equal elevation
40convergent boundary _____the "supercontinent" from millions of years ago when all the large landmasses were joined together
41transform boundary _____a deep, narrow depression on the Earth
42subduction zone  _____molten rock in the Earth's crust
43plate tectonics _____forces that push or squeeze rocks together
44Pangaea _____where two plates come together and collide
45ridge _____the branch of geology that studies the folding and faulting of the Earth's crust
46trench _____caused by shearing forces
47rock _____the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
48igneous _____a geographic location's height above sea level
49intrusive _____a map that uses contour lines at different elevations to show valleys, hills and other topography of the area and the locations of roads, landmarks and other features
50extrusive _____magma that reaches the Earth's surface
51metamorphic _____point on Earth's surface directly above where the energy is released in an earthquake
52sedimentary _____igneous rocks that form on the surface of the Earth
53sediments _____rigid layer of Earth about 100 km thick made of the crust and a part of the upper mantel
54rock cycle  _____where two plates slide past each other
55minerals _____solid inorganic material that is usually made of 2 or more minerals
56ores _____mountain created from forces or stresses where the bending and stretching is applied slowly
57fossils fuels  _____the natural, repeating processes that change, break down, and re-form rocks

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