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Supreme Court Cases

Schneck vs. United States Decision holding that state officials violated the 1st Amendment when they wrote a prayer to be recited by New York schoolchildren.
Roe vs. Wade Overturned Plessy vs. Ferguson decision of “separate but equal”; declared that segregation was unconstitutional and violated the 14th Amendment guarantee of equal protection under the law.
Roth vs. United States Decision that upheld as constitutional the internment of more than 100,000 Japanese Americans in encampments during WWII.
New York Times vs. United States Avoided defining obscenity by holding that community standards be used to determine whether materials is obscene in terms of appealing to a “prurient interest.”
Miller vs. California Decision upholding the conviction of a socialist who had urged young men to resist the draft during WWI. Justice Holmes declared that government can limit speech if the speech provokes a “clear and present danger” of substantive evils.
Korematsu vs. United States Established the guidelines for determining whether public officials and public figures could win damage suits for libel; to do so, the Court said, such individuals must prove that the statements made about them were made with “actual malice” and reckless disregard for the truth.
Miranda vs. Arizona Decision upholding that a state ban on all abortions was unconstitutional; decision forbade state control over abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy, permitted states to limit abortions to protect the mother’s health in the second trimester, and permitted states to protect the fetus during the third trimester.
McCulloch vs. Maryland Decision ruled that the 4th Amendment’s protection against unreasonable search and seizures must be extended to the states as well as the federal government.
Lemon vs. Kurtzman Defined the constitutional rights of students in United States public schools.
Marbury vs. Madison Decision holding that freedoms of press and speech are “fundamental personal rights and liberties protected by the due process clause of the 14th Amendment from impairment by the states” as well as the federal government.
Brown vs. Board of Education Set guidelines for police questioning of accused persons to protect them against self-incrimination and to protect their right to counsel.
Gitlow vs, New York Established the supremacy of the national government over the state government; Congress has certain implied powers in addition to its Constitutional enumerated powers.
Engle vs. Vitale Decision held that religious duty was not a suitable defense to a criminal indictment.
Near vs. Minnesota Decision ruling that “obscenity is not within the area of constitutionally protected speech or press.”
Texas vs. Johnson Established judicial review.
Sanford vs. Scott Court struck down a law banning the burning of the American flag on the grounds that such action was symbolic speech protected by the 1st Amendment.
Gideon vs. Wainwright Decision that established that aid to church-related schools must 1. Have secular legislative purposes, 2. Have a primary effect that neither advances nor inhibits religion, 3. Not foster excessive government entanglement with religion.
Tinker vs. Des Moines Decision upholding that anyone accused of a felony where imprisonment may be imposed, however poor he or she might be, has a right to a lawyer.
Mapp vs. Ohio Decision ruled that the First Amendment did not protect the right of the New York Times to print governmental materials (Pentagon Papers).
New York Times vs. Sullivan Decision holding that the 1st Amendment protects newspapers from prior restraint.
NAACP v. Alabama Decision ruling that a slave who had escaped to a free state enjoyed no rights as a citizen and that Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories.
Reynolds vs. United States Protected the right to assemble peaceably.

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