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Anthro Exam 1 pt2


ch3,4, 12

1exons _____physiological responses to changes in the environment that occur during an individuals lifetime. May be temporary or permanent. Subject to evolutionary factors such as natural selection and genetic drift
2noncoding sequences _____the philosophy of “race improvement” through the forced sterilization of members of some groups and increased reproduction among others
3introns _____the position on a chromosome where a given gene occurs
4Regulatory genes _____any factor that acts to disrupt homeostasis
5homeobox (hox) genes _____cell division in specialized cells in ovaries and testes. involves two divisions and results in four daughter cells, each containing only half the original number of chromosomes. These cells can develop into gametes
6chromosome  _____Heterozygotes
7autosomes _____referring to species composed of populations that differ in the expression of one or more traits
8sex chromosomes _____a disease transimited to humans through contact with nonhuman animals
9mitosis _____large molecules found on the surface of cells.
10meiosis _____in reference to polygenic inheritance, molecules that influence the color of skin hair and eyes
11recombination (crossing over) _____lack of oxygen
12polymerase chain reaction (PCR) _____describing a trait that isnt expressed in heterozygotes
13Human Genome project _____An international effort aimed at sequencing and mapping the entire humane genome
14genome _____the observable or detectable physical characteristic of an organism. (detectable expressions of genotypes)
15hybrids _____in a population, the percentage of all the alleles at a locus accounted for by one specific allele
16principle of segregation _____Segments of genes that are intially transcribed and then deleted. because they are not expressed they are not included in protein synthesis
17recessive _____in mammals, the X and Y chromosomes
18dominant _____agents that transmit disease from one carrier to another
19locus  _____describing a trait governed by an allele thats expressed in the presence of another allele
20alleles  _____a severe inherited hemoglobin disorder in which red blood cells collapse when deprived of oxygen. results from inheriting two copies of a mutant allele
21homozygous _____populations that are clearly isolated geographically and/or socially from other breeding groups
22heterozygous _____the expression of two alleles in heterozygotes
23genotype _____genes that influence the activity of other genes
24phenotype _____discrete structures composed of DNA and protein found only in the nuclie of cells.
25principle of independent assortment _____all chromosmes except sex chromosomes
26random assortment _____and evollutionary ancient family of reulatory genes that directs the development of the overall body plan and the segmentation of body tissues
27Mendelian traits _____loci with more than one allele. Can be expressed in the phenotype as the result of gene action, or they can exist solely in the DNA level within non-coding regions
28antigens _____genes (alleles) occur in pairs because chromosomes occur in pairs
29codominance _____narrowing of blood vessels to reduce blood flow to the skin; warming
30polygenic _____characteristics that are influence by alleles at only one genetic locus
31pigment _____having the same allele at the same locus on both members of a pair of chromosomes
32variation (genetic) _____alternate forms of a gene
33allele frequency _____A method of producing thousands of copies of a DNA sample
34population _____a gradual change in the frequency of genotypes and phenotypes from on geographical region to another
35gene pool  _____Segments of genes that are transcribed an are involved in protein sntheses
36microevolution _____the chance distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells during meiosis. a source of genetic variation
37macroevelution _____In adults, the continued production of lactase
38gene flow _____changes prduced only after many generations, such as the appearance of a new species
39genetic drift _____inherited differences among individuals; the basis of all evolutionary change
40founder effect _____continuously present in a population
41sickle-cell anemia _____The mathematical relationship expressing under conditions in which no evolution is occuring, the predicted distribution of alleles in populations
42biological determinism _____the distribution of one pair of alleles into gametes does not influence the ditrisibution of another pair.
43eugenics _____the genetic makeup of an individual.
44polytypic _____expansion of blood vessels, permitting increased blood flow to the skin; Cooling
45polymorphisms _____a condition of balance with a biological system by the interaction of physiological mechanisms that compensate for changes
46cline _____ all of the genes shared by the reproductive members of a pipulation
47lactase persistance _____the concept that phenomena, including various aspects of behavior are governed by biological factors; the inaccurate association of various behavioral attributes with certain biological traits, such as skin color
48population genetics _____refering to traits that are influenced by gene at two or more loci. Ex: stature, skin color, eye color
49gene pool _____small changes occurring within species, such as changes in allele frequencies
50breeding isolates _____the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during meiosis
51Hardy- Weinberg Equilibrium _____having different alleles at the same locus on member of a pair of chromosomes
52stress _____simple cell division; the process by which somatic cells divide to produce two identical daughter cells
53homeostasis _____evolutionary changes or changes in allele frequencies that are produced by random factors in small populations, result of small population size.
54acclimatization _____the total complement of genes shared by the reproductive members of a population
55vasodilation _____the study of the frequency of alleles, genotypes, and phenotypes in populations from a microevolutionary perspective
56vasoconstriction _____segments of DNA that dont direct the production of protiens.
57hypoxia _____within a species, community of individuals where amtes are usually found.
58vectors _____a type of genetic drift in which allele frequencies are altered in small populations that are taken from, or are remnants of larger populations
59endemic _____the entire genetic makeup of an individual or species. In humans its estimated that each individual possesses approximately 3 billion DNA nucleotides
60zoonotic _____exchange of genes between populations

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