probability Argues that generalizations will hold good only under specific conditions, because if circumstances change, other variables might come into play and influence the existing relationship Data This is the process of scientific analysis in which independent variables are introduced to determine their effect on other variables Operational Definition When one variable increases, and a second variable decreases Causation When a subjects behavior changes when know they are being observed or evaluated. correlation the process of data collection that examines information that has been collected by someone else. Personal Interview A statement about the recurrent relationships between particular variables. A generalization is often accurate, but not specific to whom it applies to. Hypothesis research based solely on scientific observation and evaluation. Variable The process of gathering more specific and detailed information from the sample being studied. Reliability the variable that is manipulated by researchers to determine its influence on the outcome of the second set of variables. Analysis Method in which the researcher observes their subjects at a distance without revealing their identity or intentions. Emperical Analysis A list of closed-ended questions that respondents are asked to fill out. Spurious Correlation the process of ensuring that research findings are consistent if they are to be replicated by other scientists Qualitative Analysis this occurs when both variables appear to be statistically related, but not logically acceptable Questionaire Research this method is designed to ensure that each subject has an equal chance of being selected into a research study. Validity the process of interpreting gathered data; usually through statistical measurements Research Method A prediction about the outcome of manipulated variables. Participant observation this is the outcome of manipulated variables, which is then measured by researchers to determine its overall significance. Mean Are the established statistical relationship between particular variables random sample A portion of the population used to geralize the attitudes of society as a whole. Experiment Describes exactly what the variables are and how they are measured within the context of the study. negative correlation In this situation, the researcher becomes personally involved in the activities of their subjects Sample A method of study Secondary analysis Occurs when one variable influences the outcoe of a second variable Generalization The process of reducing general research data into numbers. (EX. Percentage of teen mothers in CA) Naturalistic Observation A form of research conversation in which a specific list of questions are asked of the respondent Dependent variable the researcher must make sure that their operational definitions measure what they were intended to measure. Hawthorne Effect A characteristic that can change across time, across space, or from one individual group to another Quantitive Analysis the numerical value of each response, divided by the total number of respondents longitudinal study research that is conducted over an extended period of time. Independent variable Information that needs statistical interpretation.

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