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Pharm Basics


CAM  Documentation of all pharmacotherapies received by the patient.
Drug  Medication is administered as required by the patient's condition.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA)  As soon as possible order that should be available for administration to the patient within 30 minutes of the written order.
Pharmacology  Study of how the body responds to drugs.
Pharmacotherapy  Mechanism whereby drugs are absorbed across the intestinal wall and enter into the hepatic portal circulation.
Therapeutics  Ability of a drug to reach the bloodstream and its target tissues.
Bioavailability General term for any substance capable of producing biologic responses in the body.
Chemical name  The branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of disease and suffering.
Generic name  Drug that is capable of binding with receptors to induce a cellular response.
Mechanism of action  The study of medicines; the discipline pertaining to how drugs improve or maintain health.
Prototype drug  Acquired hyperresponse of body defenses to a foreign substance (allergen).
Trade name  The way in which a drug exerts its effects.
Allergic reaction  Order written in advance of a situation that is to be carried out under specific circumstances.
Anaphylaxis The taking of multiple drugs concurrently.
ASAP order  Dispensation of medications via a needle into the skin layers.
Buccal route  Any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the health care provider, patient, or consumer.
Enteral route  Proprietary name of a drug assigned by the manufacturer; also called the brand name or product name.
Enteric coated Treatments considered outside the realm of conventional Western medicine
Intradermal (ID)  Total of all biochemical reactions in the body.
Parenteral route  The process of removing substances from the body.
PRN order  Administration of a tablet or capsule by placing it in the oral cavity between the gum and the cheek.
Standing order  Medication administered into the dermis layer of the skin.
STAT order  The process of transporting drugs through the body.
Subcutaneous  Strict chemical nomenclature used for naming drugs established by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
Sublingual route  Medication delivered beneath the skin.
Absorption  The length of time required for the plasma concentration of a drug to decrease by half after administration.
Distribution  Referring to tablets that have a hard, waxy coating designed to dissolve in the alkaline environment of the small intestine.
Excretion  Well-understood model drug
First-pass effect The ability of a drug to produce a desired response.
Metabolism  U.S. agency responsible for the evaluation and approval of new drugs.
Pharmacokinetics  Study of how drugs are handled by the body.
Plasma half-life (t 1/2)  Drug that blocks the response of another drug.
Agonist  Treatment or prevention of disease by means of drugs.
Antagonist  Nonproprietary name of a drug assigned by the government.
Efficacy  Acute allergic response to an antigen that results in severe hypotension and may lead to life-threatening shock if untreated.
Pharmacodynamics  Administration of drugs orally, and through nasogastric or gastrostomy tubes.
Polypharmacy  Administration of medication by placing it under the tongue and allowing it to dissolve slowly.
Medication administration record (MAR)  Any medication that is needed immediately and is to be given only once.
Medication error  The process of moving a drug across body membranes.

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