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American History

Taryn L

Sir Winston Churchill Formed in the 1930s as propaganda, HUAC was revived after World War II as a watchdog against Communist propaganda.
Wendell Willkie Wall street lawyer who ran against Franklin D. Roosevelt in his bid for a third consecutive term, which Roosevelt won.
Lend-Lease Code name for the Allied invasion of Normandy launched on D-Day, June 6, 1944.
Atlantic Charter Location of 1942 decisive World War II naval battle, in which land and carrier-based U.S. planes defeated a Japanese fleet.
Pearl Harbor Passed in 1941, this act forged the way for the United States to transfer military supplies to the Allies, primarily Great Britain and the Soviet Union.
Bataan Peninsula  Military, political, and ideological barrier established between the Soviet block and Western Europe from 1945 to 1989.
Douglas MacArthur  Site of a U.S. naval base on the southern coast of Oahu, Hawaii, which the Japanese attacked on Sunday, December 7, 1941; the United States entered World War II the following day.
Rosie the Riveter Reflecting a tougher approach to the Soviet Union following World War II, President Truman went before Congress in 1947 to request $400 million in military aid for Greece and Turkey, claiming the appropriation was vital to the containment of Communism and to the future of freedom everywhere.
Nisei Symbol of the new breed of working women during World War II.
Dwight D. Eisenhower A person born in the United States of parents who emigrated from Japan.
Operation OVERLORD British politician and writer. As prime minister he led Great Britain through World War II. He published several books, including The Second World War, and won the 1953 Nobel Prize for literature.
Midway Island  The B-29 bomber, named after the mother of pilot Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, which dropped the first atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, killing more than one hundred thousand people.
Harry S. Truman  U.S. general and thirty-fourth president of the United States. As supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force in World War II, he launched the invasion of Normandy and oversaw the defeat of Germany in 1945.
Yalta Conference Thirty-third president of the United States, he took office following the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Reelected in 1948 in a stunning political upset, Truman’s controversial and historic decisions included the use of atomic weapons against Japan, desegregation of the U.S. military, and dismissal of General MacArthur as commander of U.S. forces during the Korean War.
Enola Gay U.S. general. He served as chief of staff and commanded the Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II. Initially losing the Philippines to the Japanese n 1942, he regained the islands and accepted the surrender of Japan in 1945. He commanded the UN forces in Korea until a conflict in strategies led to his dismissal by President Truman.
Baby Boom  Composed during a meeting between President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, it listed eight principles for a better world, such as freedom from fear and want, self-determination for all people, and the disarming of aggressor nations. Many see the Atlantic Charter as a guiding force behind the establishment of the United Nations following World War II.
Levittown U.S. general and statesman. As secretary of state, he organized the European Recovery Plan, often called the Marshall Plan, for which he received the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize.
Iron Curtain U.S. and Filipino World War II troops surrendered this peninsula in western Luzon, Philippines, to the Japanese in April 1942 after an extended siege; U.S. forces recaptured the peninsula in February 1945.
Containment Increased numbers of births in the years after World War II.
George C. Marshall State department official accused of espionage at the height of the Cold War, he was convicted of perjury in 1950 in controversial date.
Truman Doctrine U.S. senator from Wisconsin, he presided over the permanent subcommittee on investigations and held public hearings in which he accused army officials, members of the media, and public figures of being Communists. These charges were never proved, and was censured by the Senate in 1954.
Marshall Plan First African American player in the Major Leagues in the twentieth century, he was second baseman for the Brooklyn Dodgers, had a lifetime batting average of .311, and was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962.
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) U.S. nationality security doctrine during the Cold War. Attributed to State Department officer George Kennan, containment came to define America’s political-military strategy for confronting Soviet expansion.
Jackie Robinson Military alliance, founded in 1949, between the United States and eleven other nations to protect Western Europe from invasion. It was a leading force in the Cold War struggle to contain Soviet aggression, expanding to include new nations over the years.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization Post-World War II U.S. economic aid program, also known as the European Recovery Plan. The plan, costing about $13 billion, helped restore economic confidence throughout the Western Europe, raise living standards, and curb the influence of local Communist parties, and increase U.S. trade and investment on the European continent.
Joseph R. McCarthy An unincorporated community of 53,286 people in southeast New York on western Long Island, which was founded in 1947 as a low-cost housing development for World War II veterans.
Alger Hiss World War II conference where Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin attempted to establish the political future of a liberated Europe. Though Stalin agreed that Soviet forces would enter the war against Japan within three months of Germany’s surrender, his determination to dominate Eastern Europe effectively ended the so-called Grand Alliance.

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