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Evolution and Speciation


What is biogeography? The movement of alleles between populations. With significant gene flow, the more similar the population will be
What are molecular comparisons? The selective breeding of plants and animals by humans to get offspring with particular traits
What is artificial selection? A range of techniques that can be used to show relatedness between species and how close the common ancestor is e.g. DNA comparisons
What is a cline? Over population, variation, competition, survival of the fittest and favourable combination increase
What are allele frequencies? A continuous gradual change in a species. Usually along the edge of a county or continent
What is a gene pool? Is a group of sexually reproductively isolated organisms that can produce fertile offspring and can interbreed.
What can mutation do to a gene pool? A concept which describes the degree of relatedness between species. The more closely related means they have a more common recent ancestor
What is natural selection? When species that come from different ancestors evolve similar adaptations due to similar selections pressures e.g. dolphin and shark
What is adaptive fitness? Introduce new alleles, therefore introducing new traits
What is a species? They can demonstrate the accuracy of evolution, they can provide a link in evolution and can show common ancestors
What is genetic drift? The total number of alleles within a population
What is gradualism? A type of sympatric speciation where there is a relatively rapid emergence of a new species due to polyploidy mutation
What is adaptive radiation? The speciation of two new species from a common ancestor. Each form a new evolutionary lineage
What is sequential evolution? The failure of chromosomes to separate evenly in meiosis resulting in gametes with incorrect number of chromosomes
What is coevolution?  When in evolution there is a long period of little change (stasis) followed by a relatively rapid change. This is likely to occur when the environment goes through periods of stability, followed by a rapid change
What is non disjunction? When two or more species directly effects the evolution of another. Likely when two species often interact. e.g. bird and flower, lion and zebra
What are pre-zygotic isolating mechanisms? What different species are able to coexist due to adaptations that minimilize interspecific competition
What is gene flow? Is the change in allele frequencies within a population due to chance. It is exaggerated in small populations and some alleles may become completely lost
What is nice differation? When populations slowly diverge from one another by having different characteristics in response to different selection pressures
What are the concepts of Darwinism? Missing phrase2 - 31
What roles can fossils play? The comparison between embryonic development of different vertebrates. Closely related forms will be more similar
What are vestigial structures? An organisms ability to survive and reproduce due to its adaptions. Natural selection will favour those that are adaptively fit
What is comparative embryology? Where the species of a single evolutionary lineage changes over time to become genetically distinct from is ancestral form
What are analogous structures? The number of alleles for a given trait. The frequency can change over time due to a number of factors
What is a punctured equilibrium? Anatomical features which are derived from a common ancestor and show similarity. The structures are adapted to suit the niche in which the organism has evolved. e.g. pendedactal limb
What is convergent evolution? When structures that have similar functions come from species with common ancestors. It may indicate convergent evolution
What is common ancestry? Behavioural differences, habitat preferences, structural differences and physiological differences.
What are homologous structures? When a species number gets down to zero
What is extinction? The process of evolutionary change in a population or species. Those species that carry desirable genes will be bred in. Is dependent on the environment
What is divergent evolution? Structures in a organism that show evidence of a common ancestor and former use. They no longer provide the same function due to selection pressures
What is instant speciation? When one species quickly evolves into many offspring species due to a sudden change in the environment. This occurs when an organism reaches a new niche.
What is a ring species The principle that plants and animals originate only once. Regions that have been separated from the world for a long time often have distinct biota with a large number of endemic species

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