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groEl enzymes that cut phosphoglycerides
Hsp's contains RNA and protein, part of spliceosome
Ubiquitin removes 1 fatty acid = PA-> LPA + FA
Ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) Chaperonin (uses energy to jostle protein to help it fold)
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) Removes phosphates from ends of DNA strands
Ubiquitin ligase (E3) binds and protects single–stranded DNA
Proteasome proteins that help/hinder RNA polymerase binding promoter
Phospholipases Proteins that “flip” lipid from 1 membrane leaflet to another
A1/A2 A reverse transcriptase that maintains/replicates telomeres
C start each Okazaki fragment with RNA/ DNA primer
D seals “nicks” to put Okazaki fragments together
Flippases Seals nicks (when one strand of double stranded DNA is broken)
Porin Chaperones cover hydrophobic protein parts while folding
Na+/K+ pump removes head group (including PO4-) – (PE DAG + PO4- ethanol amine)
Ca2+ pumps Degrades ampicillin (allowing bacteria to survive)
Calmodulin Proteins that bind ARS (Autonomous Replicating Sequence)
Resting K+ channels short poly peptide- Found in cytosol; used to modify old proteins
GLUT  finishes Okazaki fragments, including replacing RNA on previous fragment with DNA
GLUT1 DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus, withstands high temperatures of PCR
GLUT2 bind stop codon causing protein release and ribosome disassembly
GLUT4 transfers ubiquitin from E2 to the protein to be degraded
MDR protein  Allows K+ to flow out (with its concentration gradient) until a positive charge builds up outside the cell – known as the resting potential.
Aquaporin makes a donut around DNA to keep DNA polymerase from falling off
DNA ligase (found in most cells) allows glucose in from blood for food
Taq polymerase  entire complex when many ribosomes are on one mRNA at the same time
Alkaline Phosphatase (CIAP)  Pulls DNA strands apart
AmpR protein (aka beta-lactamase) water channel; found in eukaryotic cells but not frog oocytes
Restriction enzymes  Located in plasma membrane – 2 K+ in for every 3 Na+ out Uses 1 ATP by being phosphorylated/dephosphorylated during each cycle of pumping
Telomerase binds TATA box and recruits TAF’s
Histones used to package DNA
SWI/SNF complex Eukaryotic transcription factors that bind various DNA sequences called response elements
ORC Cut double stranded DNA; each enzyme comes from a different organism and cuts a different DNA sequence
Topoisomerase bind TBP and recruits RNA polymerase
Helicase used to transfer ubiquitin to E2
RPAs  located in plasma membrane and the sarcoplasmic recticulum- pumps Ca2+ out of cytosol
DNA polymerase delta remodels chromatin
Primase/DNA polymerase alpha glucose uniporters
Ligase removes head group ( excluding PO4-) ( PE  PA + ethanolamine)
DNA polymerase gamma Removes supercoils/twisting ahead of replication fork
PCNA only transports glucose when concentration gradient is high (found in intestinal epithelia to allow glucose to enter blood, and in the liver/pancreas so glucose only enters them when blood sugar is high)
RFC  binds ubiquitin molecule
Reverse transcriptase recognizes and degrades polyubiquinated proteins
TBP activated by Ca2+-- when activated it turns on Ca2+ pumps (this protein will have more functions later)
TAF  helps with getting PCNA around DNA
Transcription factors (found in fat and muscle cells) transported to the surface of cells in response to insulin
Nuclear receptors help assemble ribosomes and initiator tRNA onto mRNA
snRPs  Beta–barrel protein makes pores in outer bacterial membrane
IF’s  pumps most small molecules (drugs) out of cell
EF’s  Uses an RNA template to make DNA
RF’s  replicates mitochondrial DNA
Polysomes help the correct tRNA bind the A site on ribosome

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