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LS 2D03, Chapter 2 Definitions

1Natural Selection  _____ statistical technique used to measure heritability; examines similarity of traits between parents and their offspring
2Heritable  _____ a trait that enhances fitness
3Evolution  _____ evolutionary process that optimizes animal traits to fit their current environments
4Parent-offspring Regression  _____ selection that favors one group over another group within the same species
5Selection Experiment  _____ the trait value that has the highest fitness in a population in a specific environment
6Adaptation (trait)  _____ selection that favors individuals with either one of two extreme phenotypes
7Adaptation (process)  _____ an experiment in which different groups of individuals are exposed to differential selection on a trait
8Directional Selection  _____ natural selection that involves both group and individual selection
9Disruptive Selection  _____ individual fitness + fitness due to kin selection
10Stabilizing Selection  _____ pronounced morphological differences between the sexes
11Optimal Trait Value  _____ a trait that is passed on from parent to offspring
12Cost-benefit Approach  _____ natural selection that acts on heritable traits that affect reproduction
13Individual Selection  _____ natural selection acting on individuals
14Group Selection  _____ differential reproduction and survivorship among individuals in a population that results in adaptive evolution
15Kin Selection  _____ selection that favors individuals with intermediate phenotypes
16Inclusive Fitness  _____ a form of natural selection used to explain altruism; based on the idea that individuals can increase their own fitness by helping close relatives that have a high percent of shared genes
17Multilevel Selection  _____ changes in allele frequency in a population over time
18Sexual Selection  _____ method used to study behavior adaptations by examining fitness costs and benefits of various traits
19Sexual Dimorphism  _____ selection that favors individuals with one extreme phenotype

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