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LS 2D03, Chapter 3 Definitions

1Proximate Explanation  _____ two species that are more closely related to each other than any other species
2Ultimate Explanation  _____ a trait found in the common ancestor of two or more specie; also known as a plesiomorphic trait
3Observational Research  _____ operant chamber that is used to study animal behavior
4Experimental Research  _____ method of studying animals by comparing traits between species; seeks to understand the evolution of behavioral traits
5Control Group  _____ learning by pairing an instinctual stimulus-response relationship with an unrelated stimulus; also known as Pavlovian conditioning
6Comparative Research  _____ traits that are similar due to shared common ancestry
7Ancestral Trait  _____ learning by association of a behavior with its consequence; also known as instrumental conditioning or trial-and-error learning
8Derived Trait  _____ the idea that the simplest psychological process possible should be used to interpret animal behaviors
9Phylogeny  _____ hypothesized evolutionary ancestor-descendent relationships among different species
10Sister Species  _____ a stimulus that initiates a FAP
11Clades  _____ method of studying animals by observing and recording their behaviors; does not involve the manipulation of environment or animal
12Homologies  _____ explanation that focuses on understanding the immediate causes of behavior
13Outgroup  _____ explanation that focuses on understanding the evolutionary reasoning for behavior
14Synapomorphies  _____ a trait found in an organism that was not present in its common ancestor; also known as an apomorphic trait
15Parsimony  _____ groups of organisms that are all descended from a common ancestor
16Morgan's Cannon  _____ rapid observational learning in young animals
17Classical Conditioning  _____ using technology in place of animals to study animal behavior
18Operant Conditioning  _____ branch of math that deals with probability
19Skinner Box  _____ the group in an experiment that is not manipulated; exists to serve as a comparison to the manipulated groups
20Imprinting  _____ the idea that simplicity is more probable in nature
21Fixed Action Patterns (FAP)  _____ violation of ethical behavior in science
22Releaser Stimulus  _____ improving procedures to minimize pain and suffering of animals during research
23Scientific Misconduct  _____ method of studying animals by manipulating a variable to see how it affects an animal's behavior
24Replacement  _____ species that are distantly related to each other
25Reduction  _____ instinctual behaviors that are invariant, unlearned, and always brought to completion once initiated
26Refinement  _____ limiting the number of animals used to study animal behavior
27Statistics  _____ shared derived traits

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