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LS 2D03, Chapter 4 Definitions

1Phenotype (P)  _____ interactions between alleles at different loci
2Genotype (G)  _____ proportion of P variation solely as a result of A
3Environment (E)  _____ avoidance of open areas and tendency to seek physical contact with objects
4Gene-environment Interaction (GEI)  _____ procedure in which gene expression is reduced
5Instinct  _____ typical form of an organism or gene that occurs in nature
6Reflex  _____ stem cells that can differentiate into any type of cell
7Major Gene  _____ proportion of P variation in a population that is due to G variation
8Minor Gene  _____ behaviors that are performed the same way each time, fully expressed the first time they are exhibited, and present even in individuals raised in isolation
9Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL)  _____ procedure in which a single gene is rendered nonfunctional
10QTL Mapping  _____ genetic map that shows relative positions of genetic markers on chromosomes
11Linkage Map  _____ range of behaviors expressed by a single genotype in different environments
12Genetic Markers  _____ alleles that code for P
13Totipotent  _____ measurement of gene activity via quantifying gene products (mRNA); also known as gene expression profiling
14Gene Expression Profiling  _____ conditions an individual has experienced
15Knockout Technique  _____ statistical technique used to determine the locations of QTL
16Thigmotaxis  _____ 2D visualizations of sounds; also known as a sonogram
17Broad-sense Heritability  _____ consistent differences in behavior in individuals over time and across different environments
18Additive Effects (A)  _____ fruit fly larval variation that has long foraging trails and is more likely to leave a food patch
19Dominance Effect (D)  _____ individual gene that is responsible for a small fraction of P variation
20Epistasis (I)  _____ process by which genes are switched on or off
21Narrow-sense Heritability  _____ observed traits of an individual
22Gene Expression  _____ the average effect of individual genes on P
23Microarray Analysis  _____ fruit fly larval variation that has short foraging trails and is less likely to leave a food patch
24Close-ended Learner  _____ involuntary movement in response to a stimulus
25Open-ended Learner  _____ stretches of DNA that either contain or are linked to genes that influence traits
26Knockdown Technique  _____ learning can occur throughout life and be facilitated by different means
27Spectrogram  _____ interaction between alleles at one locus
28Reaction Norm  _____ interactions between G and E that affect P
29Rover  _____ learning can only occur during a critical period and be facilitated by a conspecific tutor
30Sitter  _____ individual gene that is responsible for a large fraction of P variation; also known as a candidate gene
31Personality  _____ another method of determining candidate genes; also known as microarray analysis
32Wild Type  _____ short sequences of known DNA

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