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How do you treat this

Jennifer W.

Disorders and how to treat with pharmacotherapy. Renal Tissue, Gas Exchange, Digestion and Elimination

1Acidosis is excess acid  _____controlling blood pressure and fluid balance in the body): video to come later that brings everything together
2Alkalosis is excess base  _____Inhibit sympathetic activation in arterioles, causing vasodilation
3Kidneys and lungs work to remove  _____Severe diarrhea Kidney failure Diabetes mellitus Excess alcohol ingestion Starvation
4RESPIRATORY ORIGINS OF ACIDOSIS _____remove the underlying condition
5METABOLIC ORIGINS OF ACIDOSIS _____increase blood pressure
6RESPIRAT ORY ORIGINS OF ALKALOSIS _____volume of blood pumped per minute (higher CO, higher the BP) Determined by heart rate and stroke volume (amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in 1 contraction
7METABOLIC ORIGINS OF ALKALOSIS _____Hypoventilation or shallow breathing Airway constriction Damage to respiratory center in medulla
8Metabolic Acidosis _____CO x SVR
9Respiratory Acidosis _____total amount of blood in the vascular system (more blood volume will exert additional pressure on the walls of the arteries; thus, increasing blood pressure)
10Acid–Base Agents _____Act on the early distal tubule to block the reabsorption of Na, CL and H20. Excretion of postassium is increased
11Prototype: sodium bicarbonate _____: indicates how much pressure your blood is exerting against your artery walls when the heart beats.
12Acid–Base Agents _____Mechanism of action: to decrease pH of body fluids
13Adverse effect: metabolic alkalosis caused by receiving too much bicarbonate ion and hypokalemia _____diarrhea, kidney failure, diabetes, excess alcohol, starvation
14Metabolic Alkalosis _____Prototype: sodium bicarbonate
15Respiratory Alkalosis _____Decrease heart rate and contractility; blockade beta1-receptors in juxtaglomerular apparatus, which inhibits the secretion of renin
16Metabolic Alkalosis sx _____increase blood pressure
17Metabolic Acidosis sx  _____Hyperventilation due to asthma, anxiety, high altitude
18Respiratory Alkalosis sx  _____Prevent angiotensin II from reaching its receptors, causing vasodilation
19Respiratory Acidosis sx  _____treatment of acidosis
20Tx Respiratory Alkalosis _____indicates how much pressure your blood is exerting against your artery walls while the heart is resting between beats
21Tx Respiratory Acidosis _____pH below 7.35
22Tx Metabolic Acidosis _____Goal to quickly reverse effects of excess acid in blood Administration of sodium bicarbonate infusion
23Tx Metabolic Alkalosis _____Decrease outflow of sympathetic nerve impulses from CNS to heart and arterioles
24Emesis _____Decrease sympathetic impulses from the CNS to the heart and arterioles causing vasodilation
25Emetogenic potential _____treat or remove the underlying condition that is causing the blood pressure elevation
26Chronic renal failure _____Goal to quickly reverse effects of excess acid in blood Administration of sodium bicarbonate infusion
27Osmotic Diuretics _____hypoventilation, airway constriction, damage to respiratory center
28Loop diuretics _____Act on the smooth muscle of arterioles, causing vasodilation
29Potassium-Sparing Diuretics _____Hyperventilation due to asthma, anxiety, or high altitude
30Thiazide Diuretics _____Slow, shallow respirations in attempt to retain acid
31Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors _____acton on the acsending limb of the loop of henle to block reabsorption of Na, Cl, and H20. Excreation of K is increased
32SBP _____Prescribing two antihypertensives results in additive or synergistic blood pressure reduction
33DBP _____Prolonged constipation, excess sodium bicarbonate, diuretics that cause potassium depletion, severe vomiting
34Blood pressure equals _____vomiting
35Cardiac output-  _____resulting in heart to fail and lungs fill with fluid, known as heart failure
36Peripheral resistance-  _____Ingestion of excess sodium bicarbonate Diuretics that cause potassium depletion Severe vomiting
37renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is one of the primary homeostatic mechanisms  _____pH above 7.45
38Blood volume-  _____Administration of sodium chloride with potassium chloride (mild cases)
39IV fluids will increase blood volume  _____Defense mechanism used by body to rid itself of toxic substances
40Diuretics will cause fluid loss  _____stimulates the secretion of aldosterone
41Chronic HTN: heart must work harder to pump blood to the organs and tissues _____Decrease the HR and myocardial contractility, reducing cardiac output
42Therapeutic goal for secondary HTN: _____Increase urine output and decrease fluid volume
43Uncontrolled HTN affects _____Cause vasodilation by direct relaxation of arterial smooth muscle
44Tx of HTN _____fluid retention
45First-line drugs:  _____Deep, rapid respirations in attempt to blow off excess acid
46Beta Blockers _____occurs overs months and years, h/o DM and HTN
47Diuretics _____Administration of ammonium chloride (severe cases)
48ACE Inhibitors _____Inhibit reasorption of bicarbonate ion in proximal tubule
49Angiotensin receptor blockers _____Block formation of angiotensin II, causing vasodilation and blocking aldosterone secretion, decreasing fluid volume
50CCBs _____Nervousness, hyperactive reflexes, convulsions
51Direct Vasodilators _____Block sympathetic receptors in arterioles leading to vasodilation
52Alpha1 Blockers _____Lethargy, confusion, coma
53Alpha 2 Agonists _____Block calcium ion channels in arterial smooth muscle, causing vasodilation
54Angiotensin II _____HTN and other cardiovascular diseases
55Increased sodium reabsorption causes  _____excess metabolic acid
56CCBs are used to treat _____Heart, brain, kidneys and retina
57Beta-Adrenergic Blockers  _____Act on the late distal tubule and collecting ducts to block the reabsorption of sodium and reduce the secretion of K. Excretion of K is not increased.
58Alpha1-Adrenergic Blockers _____Act on the proximal tubule and the loop of henle to create osmotic force that pulls water into the nephron and increases the excretion of nearl all ellectrolytes
59Alpha2-Adrenergic Blockers _____Acid–Base Agents
60Direct Vasodilators _____friction in the arteries (vasoconstriction: smaller diameter of artery)

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