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Chapter 9 Motivation & Emotion

Drive  Internal desire motivates behavior; performing a behavior simply because it gives a sense of fulfillment e.g. learning because we want and/or like to learn
Need  Physiological arousal [awareness and/or attentiveness to] affects motivation and performance; Y-D Law = moderate arousal leads to most optimal performance, whereas too much or too little arousal distracts and detracts from performance ability
Homeostasis  Stimulus causes a cognitive interpretation (thinking) which in turn directly and simultaneously causes both a bodily response and a feeling
Incentives  Psychological state motivating toward satisfying a need; an excitatory state produced by an imbalance in homeostasis
Drive-Reduction Theory   External objects [environmental stimuli] that motivate behavior
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs   Stimulus reflexively causes a bodily response which in turn directly causes a feeling
Arousal Theory [Yerkes-Dodson Law]  Anything necessary to survive; can be biological or psychological (e.g. food, shelter, sociality)
Extrinsic Motivation  Body and/or mind’s state of normal comfort and balance
Intrinsic Motivation   Emotion = a response and state of feeling that results in physical or psychological changes often caused by specific stimuli, events, or memory recall Mood = less specific, less intense emotional state described generally as being just either positive or negative
Emotion vs. Mood  Structure of the priority that needs possess from most basic and important (bottom of pyramid) to less “necessary” for survival (top of pyramid)
3 components of Emotion (Response)  Stimulus simultaneously causes both a bodily response and cognitive interpretation which together causes a feeling
James-Lange Theory External/outside reward and/or punishment serves as incentive e.g. studying for a grade
Cannon-Bard Theory  Arousal/Reflex: physiological response (e.g. cardiovascular, respiratory); Change in behavior or thought patterns (e.g. facial expression); Feeling: subjective experience and personal evaluation (conscious)
Schacter-Singer 2-Factor Theory   We are motivated to return to homeostasis though incentives to meet our needs

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