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Chapter 11 Social

Fundamental Attribution Error  Diminished accountability when others are around; Diffusion (but also inaccurate assessment) of responsibility; we get lazy in a group
Dispositional (Personal) Attribution  The person and their “being” is the cause of their behavior
Situational Attribution  Behaving differently toward an outgroup member (someone who is not like you in any way you perceive that to be)
Actor-Observer Bias   Losing self-awareness and self-restraint in a group setting (attending more to group than self)
Attitude  Deep affectionate attachment toward those involved in our lives (friendship love)
Central-Route Persuasion   Prioritizing disposition over situation in assigning cause/blame to another persons’ actions if they are perceived to be undesirable
Peripheral-Route Persuasion  Thinking cemented by a group that affects your own thoughts even when by yourself
Cognitive Dissonance Theory   Idea that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame Blaming another group for a problem
Social Facilitation  Focus on superficial/unrelated information
Social Loafing  Lower likelihood of helping another in need if there are others around who could also help
[Bystander Apathy]  An expectation that people will help those who have helped them (far more common than true altruism) Expecting something in return for helping or being kind toward others
Deindividuation   When attitudes and behaviors don’t match (or two thoughts don’t match) ;We act to reduce this discomfort caused by clashing thoughts; leads to rationalizing and attributing blame or adjusting our actions/thoughts so they match
Group Polarization  Feelings that predispose our evaluation of other people (or situations)
GroupThink  Conforming and accepting of other’s opinions or knowledge ;Prioritizing knowledge from a group over your own
Conformity   Tendency to recall faces of our own race more accurately than faces of another race (due to outgroup homogeneity)
Normative Social Influence  Focus on logic
Informational Social Influence  Believing that people “get what they deserve” in a way to justify social inequalities
Obedience  Favoritism toward people who are like you (in whatever way you perceive that similarity to be)
Milgram Experiments  The environment or context is the cause of their behavior
Prejudice   Following order of a perceived authority figure
Stereotypes  Performance is strengthened by being in the presence of others (due to physiological arousal)
Discrimination  Categories of people
Ingroup Bias  Enhancement of a group’s perspective due to continued support for only those similar ideas
Outgroup Homogeneity  An aroused state of intense positive feelings toward another
Other-Race Effect  Tendency to see all members of a particular outgroup as the “same” as each other e.g. all people of another race look the same
Just-World Phenomenon  Conforming to a group due to a desire to fit in and be accepted
Scapegoat Theory  Acting pro-socially (helping) toward others with no expectation of return Acting in a completely unselfish way
Altruism  Attitude + emotion + predisposition to action
Reciprocity Norm  Thinking or behaving like a group
Mere-Exposure Effect   Liking of someone increases just by repeated exposure to them (facilitated by increasing levels of comfort when you know more about them)
Companionate Love  Participants were surprising more likely to follow orders that went against their own comfort/morality than ever expected
Passionate Love  To explain the cause of OUR OWN behavior, the fundamental attribution error is reversed: we are MORE likely to blame a situation and less likely to take personal responsibility (if outcome is undesirable)

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