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Chapter 1: Principles of Psychopharmacology

Michaelia Young

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3.Method that involves administration of a drug into the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the spinal cord.
4.Methods of drug administration that do not use the gastrointestinal system, such as intravenous, inhalation, intramuscular, transdermal, etc
5.Movement of lipid-soluble materials across a biological barrier without assistance based on its concentration gradient, from higher to lower concentration. (2 Words)
8.Method that involves administration of a drug into the brain tissue.
10.Application of DNA that encodes a specific protein to increase or block expression of the gene product to correct a clinical condition. (2 Words)
12.Area in the hypothalamus that is not isolated from chemicals in the blood and where hypothalamic-releasing hormones are secreted for transport to the anterior pituitary gland.Area in the hypothalamus that is not isolated from chemicals in the blood and where hypothalamic-releasing hormones are secreted for transport to the anterior pituitary gland. (2 Words)
14.Physical or behavioral changes not associated with the chemical activity of the drug–receptor interaction but with certain unique characteristics of the individual such as present mood or expectations of drug effects. (3 Words)
15.Drugs that bind to a receptor but have low efficacy, producing weaker biological effects than a full agonist. Hence they act as agonists at some receptors and antagonists at others, depending on the regional concentration of full agonist. These were previously called mixed agonist-antagonists. (2 Words)
18.Tolerance to a specific drug can reduce the effectiveness of a another drug in the same class.
20.Molecule that selectively binds to a receptor.
25.Reduction in liver enzyme activity associated with a specific drug. (2 Words)
26.Term used to describe exponential elimination of drugs from the bloodstream. (3 Words)
29.Type of tolerance to a drug that is characterized by a reduced amount of drug available at the target tissue, often as a result of more-rapid drug metabolism. It is sometimes also called drug disposition tolerance. (2 Words)
31.Movement of a drug from the site of administration to the circulatory system.
32.Study of physiological and biochemical interactions of a drug with the target tissue responsible for the drug’s effects.
35.The study of the genetic basis for variability in drug response among individuals
37.Topical administration of a drug to the nasal mucosa. (2 Words)
39.An experimentally-derived measure of a drug’s lipid solubility used to predict its relative rate of movement across cell membranes. (2 Words)
42.Molecular changes associated with a drug binding to a particular target site or receptor. (2 Words)
44.Genetic variations in a population resulting in multiple forms of a particular protein. (2 Words)
45.Alterations in physiological or psychological functions associated with a specific drug. (2 Words)
46.Drug that binds to a receptor but has little or no efficacy. When it competes with an agonist for receptor sites, it reduces the effect of the agonist. (2 Words)
47.Rapid tolerance formed during a single administration of a drug, as is the case with alcohol. (2 Words)
48.Area of pharmacology focusing on chemical substances that interact with the nervous system to alter behavior, emotions, and cognition.
49.Area in the medulla of the brain stem that is not isolated from chemicals in the blood. It is responsible for inducing a vomiting response when a toxic substance is present in the blood. (2 Words)
50.Repeated pairing of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. Eventually the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus and elicits a (conditioned) response that is similar to the original unconditioned response. (2 Words)
51.Decrease in the number of receptors, which may be a consequence of chronic agonist treatment. (2 Words)
53.The reduced effectiveness of a drug administered chronically that involves learning: either instumental or classical conditioning. (2 Words)
54.Type of drug interaction involving binding to an inactive site, such as to proteins in the plasma, to bone, or to fat. (2 Words)
55.Area of pharmacology specializing in drug-induced changes to the function of cells in the nervous system.
56.Small gaps between adjacent cells. (2 Words)
57.Time required to remove half of the drug from the blood. It is referred to as t1/2. (2 Words)
58.Graph used to display the amount of biological change in relation to a given drug dose. (3 Words)
1.Inactive sites where drugs accumulate. There is no biological effect from drugs binding at these sites, nor can they be metabolized (2 Words)
2.Enzymes in liver cells responsible for metabolizing exogenous substances such as drugs. (2 Words)
3.Increase in liver drug-metabolizing enzymes associated with repeated drug use. (2 Words)
6.Substance that activates a receptor but produces the opposite effect of a typical agonist at that receptor. (2 Words)
7.Drug that reduces the effect of an agonist, but does not compete at the receptor site. The drug may bind to an inactive portion of the receptor, disturb the cell membrane around the receptor, or interrupt the intercellular processes initiated by the agonist–receptor association. (2 Words)
9.Phenomenon in which the liver metabolizes some of a drug before it can circulate through the body, particularly when the drug has been taken orally. (3 Words)
11.The extent to which a ligand-receptor binding initiates a biological action (e.g., the ability of an agonist to activate its receptor).
13.Drug administration by oral or rectal routes.
16.Method that involves administration of a drug directly into the bloodstream by means of a vein.
17.Attraction between a molecule and a receptor.
19.Fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, providing cushioning that protects against trauma. (2 Words)
21.Inactivation of a drug through a chemical change, usually by metabolic processes in the liver.
22.Drug delivery via an implanted pump (e.g., subcutaneous) that delivers regular, constant doses to the body or into the cerebral ventricles. (2 Words)
23.Class of liver enzymes, in the microsomal enzyme group, responsible for both phase 1 and phase 2 biotransformation of psychoactive drugs. (2 Words)
24.Factors that contribute to bioavailability: the administration, absorption, distribution, binding, inactivation, and excretion of a drug.
27.Method that involves administration of a drug through the lungs.
28.Method that involves administration of a drug into a muscle.
30.Star-shaped cells of the nerve tissue that have numerous extensions and that modulate the chemical environment around neurons, metabolically assist neurons, and provide phagocytosis for cellular debris.
33.Type of tolerance formed by changes in nerve cell functions in response to the continued presence of a drug. (2 Words)
34.Difference in the amount or concentration of a substance on each side of a biological barrier, such as the cell membrane. (2 Words)
36.Method that involves administration of a drug into the cerebrospinal fluid of the ventricles.
38.Drug interactions characterized by the collective sum of the two individual drug effects. (2 Words)
40.Injection technique that is the most common route of administration for small laboratory animals. The drug is injected through the abdominal wall into the peritoneal cavity—the space that surrounds the abdominal organs.
41.Large pores in endothelial cells allowing rapid exchange between blood vessels and tissue.
42.Interaction between two drugs that share a metabolic system and compete for the same metabolic enzymes. Bioavailability of one or both increases. (2 Words)
43.Concentration of drug present in the blood that is free to bind to specific target sites.
52.Process involving the dissociation of an electrically neutral molecule into charged particles (ions).

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