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1.visible, observable trait of an organism that masks a recessive form of the trait
5.hidden trait of an organism that is masked by a dominant trait
7.passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring
8.random error or change in the DNA sequence that may affect whole chromosomes or just one gene
9.in DNA, the two twisted, ladder-shaped nucleotide strands held together by hydrogen bonds between the bases
11.process in which the two strands of the double helix separate and bases pair with free nucleotides to form two molecules of DNA, each identical to the original molecule
15.graphic representation showing patterns of inheritance in a family or breeding group
16.equal expression of both alleles
19.absence of a chromosome
20.presence of more than two alleles for a given genetic trait in a species
21.the RNA that composes ribosomes
22.delivers amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis
27.major source of genetic variation resulting from crossing over or random assortment
29.structures having a common evolutionary origin
32.Mendelian principle explaining the disappearance of a specific trait in the F1 generation and its reappearance in the F2 generation
35.error in the DNA sequence that affects only a single base pair
36.cell division in which one diploid (2n) cell produces four haploid (n) cells called sex cells
39.reproductive pattern in which haploid gametes fuse to produce a diploid zygote, which then develops by mitosis into a new organism
40.process in which the order of bases in mRNA codes for the order of amino acids in protein
42.a cell of an organism that has half the number of chromosomes (n)
43.male sex cell
45.mating between closely related individuals to produce pure lines
47.fertilization between two organisms to study the inheritance of two different traits
48.offspring produced when two varieties of plants or animals, or closely related species, are mated
50.mutation affecting gene distribution to gametes during meiosis, most commonly by deletions, insertions, inversions, or translocations
51.determination of a given trait, such as skin color or height, produced by the interaction of many genes
52.carries protein synthesis information from DNA to the ribosomes
53.fusion of male and female gametes
54.exchange of genetic material by non-sister chromatids during late prophase I of meiosis, resulting in new combinations of alleles
2.in humans, the 22 matching homologous chromosomes
3.an organism's gene combination
4.branch of biology that studies heredity
6.inherited trait controlled by genes located on the sex chromosomes
10.a cell with two copies of each type of chromosome (2n)
12.inheritance pattern in which the phenotype of the heterozygote is intermediate between those of the two homozygotes
13.in a flower, the process of transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma
14.gene form for each variation of a trait of an organism
17.inherited characteristic
18.Mendelian principle explaining that different traits are inherited independently if on different chromosomes
23.component of DNA or RNA along with a sugar and a phosphate group
24.female sex cell or gamete
25.the process by which enzymes make an RNA copy of a DNA strand
26.having identical alleles for a particular trait
28.in the genetic code, the set of three nitrogen bases representing a specific amino acid
30.failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis, resulting in gametes with too few or too many chromosomes
31.outward appearance of an organism, regardless if its genes
33.error in the DNA sequence that adds or deletes a single base, causing nearly all amino acids following the mutation to be changed
34.presence of an extra chromosome
37.having nonidentical alleles fro a particular trait
38.in humans, the 23rd pair of chromosomes, which controls the inheritance of sex characteristics and differs males from females
41.male and female sex cells
44.breeding technique used to determine whether an individual is homozygous dominant or heterozygous for a particular trait
46.fertilized egg
49.heterozygous individual that appears phenotypically the same as a homozygous dominant individual, but which has a recessive allele for an undesirable trait

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