### Research Methods Dictionary

Amy Burrows

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 Bell curve A test to see if the study is successful or needs moderations. It is often small scale and in the same setting the real research would be completed in Causation A subject or thing (such as gender, age and class) Confounding Variable Whether or not a study can be completed by another researcher Credibility Refers to the consistency of the measures and means that an instrument produces repeatable results Data It is informed by what has been done Dependent Variable A researcher's ability to demonstrate that the object of study is accurate Face Validity Event being studied and expected to change when the Independent Variable is changed Histogram A statement that no relationship exists between study variables Independent Variable Influences what should be studied and how research should be carried out. It is often a world-wide view and involves underlying methodologies and theories of a particular subject Iterative Used to designate the number of subjects in a sample group Likert scale Average of the deviation from the mean Literature Review Testing by administrating it in 2 or more occasions to the same respondents Mean Shows the frequency of information and shows the distribution- and example of one is a Bell curve. Median The value that occurs most frequently in data Methodology The action of causing or producing (cause to affect) Mode Where participants are naturally in, for example, students are naturally in the universities' cafe Moderator Variable The art or science of teaching and educating (the art of knowing) N The middle score- 3 5 4 4 5 2 2 = 2 2 3 4 4 5 5- 4 is the median n The process of studying published works to influence your own field of study Naturalistic Recorded information in a 'numeric' or 'textual' form Null Hypothesis The average value or measure of central tendency- obtained by dividing the sum of values by the total number of values. E.G 10 5 6 8 5 7= 36. 36 divided by 6=6 (6 is the mean) Objective A variable that is intentionally changed to observe its effect on the Dependent Variable Paradigm Not using whole population which can result in different results than if you did use the whole population Pedagogy The claims the researcher makes that their pledge/guarantee is correct Phenomenon The selection of a group of subjects for study from a larger population where each subject is chosen entirely by chance Pilot Study Refers to the ability of the instruments to measure what it proposes to measure Population The chance the phenomenon will occur randomly. Also known as the 'P' factor Probability Multi-method, often small scale, naturalistic, textual presentation Qualitative research How a measure or procedure appears to the reader/viewer Quantitative research Numeric data, often large scale, predicted and controlled Random sampling Designates the total sample size Reliability The methods used by the researcher, such as Quantitative Replicability Invented in 1932, is a fixed scale going down in strength, has 5-7 choices and often has a neutral point Response rate Group of people or organisations that is of interest in the study Sampling error The tendency for respondents to answer questions depending on what is favourable of their peers (desirably good or bad) Social Desirability Bias May affect the Dependent Variable when took into account Standard Deviation Influenced by personal feelings, interpretations or prejudice Subjective Is usually a qualitative such as gender, but it can be such things as boredom proneness. It has to moderate (make a link) between two variables Test-retest reliability The rate of participants in the study (E.G 95%) Validity Shows the 'mean', 'normal distribution' and 'standard deviation Warrant Not influenced by personal feelings, interpretations or prejudice

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