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Traumas of the Upper Extremity

Alison Beckner

Common traumas associated with the hand, wrist and forearm.

Arthrodesis A fracture whose ends are driven into each other. This is commonly seen in arm fractures in children and is sometimes known as a buckle fracture.
Artropathy Intra-articular fracture of radial styloid, deviation of the wrist causing avulsion of the radial styloid
Arthroplasty A fracture that is broken straight across the bone, is the result of a sharp, direct blow or may be a stress fracture caused, for example, by prolonged running.
Closed reduction (CR) Intra-articular fracture of base of Thumb metacarpal, axial load along metacarpal in a partially flexed thumb
Open reduction Radius shaft fracture with dislocation of distal radioulnar joint, blow to forearm
ORIF An autoimmune disease that results in a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs
Reduce Comminuted fracture of base of first metacarpal, axial load along the metacarpal causing splitting of the proximal articular surface
Traction Creation of an artificial joint to correct ankylosis
Comminuted Fracture Refers to the absence of healing in a fracture.
Delayed Union Fracture Open reduction internal fixation
Greenstick Fracture A chronic inflammatory condition caused by an autoimmune disease.
Malunion Fracture Refers to the healing of a fracture with incorrect anatomical alignment.
Nonunion Fracture A bone fracture that is taking an exceptionally long amount of time to heal.
Oblique Fracture Any disease that affest a joint
Spiral Fracture Fractures involving a growth plate
Transverse Fracture Usually occurs in children, whose still soft bones splinter without breaking in two. Sudden force causes only the outer side of the bent bone to break.
Union Fracture Wrench or twist the ligaments of (an ankle, wrist, or other joint) violently so as to cause pain and swelling but not dislocation.
Impacted Fracture Fracture broken at an angle across the bone and is usually the result of a sharp angled blow to the bone.
Pathologic Fracture Fracture of neck of 5th metacarpal, punching solid object
Stress Fracture Caused by a disease that weakens the bones.
Open (Compound) Fracture Tiny cracks in a bone caused by the repetitive application of force, often by overuse — such as repeatedly jumping up and down or running long distances. Can also arise from normal use of a bone that's been weakened by a condition such as osteoporosis.
Barton's Fracture Distal radius fracture with dorsal angulation, impaction and radial drift, fall on outstretched hand
Bennett's Fracutre To align two bone fragments in the correct position as treatment for a fracture
Boxer's Fracture Reduction of fracture fragments through surgical intervention
Chauffeur's Fracture Procedure in which bone fragments are reduced manually without surgical intervention
Colle's Fracture Stiffening of a joint by operative means
Essex-Lopresti Fracture A fracture in which broken bone fragments lacerate soft tissue and protrude through an open wound in the skin.
Galeazzi Fracture Refers to healing of bone fracture fragments.
Hume Fracture A dislocation of the elbow joint caused by a sudden pull on the extended pronated arm
Monteggia Fracture A fracture that splinters and contains small bone particles, can shatter into more than two pieces. This fracture is usually caused by severe force, such as in a car accident.
Moore's Fracture The process of putting a limb, bone, or group of muscles under tension with the use of weights and pulleys to align or immobilize the part
Rolando Fracture Distal radius fracture with volar displacement, fall on outstretched hand with wrist in flexed position
Salter-Harris (Epiphyseal) Fracture Proximal ulna fracture with dislocation of radial head, Blow to forearm
Smith's Fracutre Refers to a fracture caused by a twisting force that creates an oblique fracture around and through the bone.
Skier's Thumb A sprain or tear of the ulnar collateral ligament.
Sprain Distal radius fracture involving the articular surface with dislocation of the radiocarpal joint,fall on outstretched hand
Nursemaid's elbow Comminuted radial head fracture with interosseous membrane disruption and distal radioulnar joint subluxation, fall from height
Gout Type of arthritis. It occurs when uric acid builds up in blood and causes inflammation in the joints.
Rheumatoid Arthritis Distal radius fracture with ulnar dislocation and entrapment of styloid process under annular ligament
Lupus Olecranon fracture with anterior dislocation of radial head

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