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Anatomical Directions and Body Planes

Christy White

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Rotation is the reverse movement during which the angle between the anterior aspects of the displaced parts in increased as in moving the forearm away form the upper arm
Ventral turning the sole of the foot outward
Ventral the fixed end or attachment of muscle
Superior the neutral stance of the individual; standing, facing forward with arms at the sides and palms facing forward
Internal lying on the back, face upwards, opposed to prone
External muscle attachment to a bone that moves
Supination the back of the body or body part
Superficial movement away from the median plane around an anterior-posterior axis with the angle between the displaced parts becoming greater, as in lifting the arm sideward away from the body
Median turning the sole of the foot inward
Dorsal meaning too much
Internal rotation backward; as in pulling the shoulder back and thus bringing the shoulder blades together
Action toward the midline of the body
Distal up; as in lifting the shoulder up
Range of motion movement around a transverse axis in an anterior-posterior plane with the angle between the anterior aspects of the displaced parts becoming smaller, as in bending the
Circumduction the act of drawing the toe or foot toward the dorsal aspect of the proximally conjoined body segment
Plantar is movement around the horizontal and longitudinal axis of a joint during which the distal end of the bone circumscribes the base of an imaginary cone and proximal end forms the apex, as in swinging the arms in a circle
Valgus down; as in lowering the shoulder
Plantar flexion bottom surface (opposite of dorsal)
Depression position of a body part that is bent outward
Inversion divides the body into equal and symmetrical right and left halves
Palmar forward; as in bring the shoulder forward
Volar is lateral rotation of the forearm, as in turning the palm of the hand upward
Lateral the act of drawing the toe or foot toward the plantar aspect of the proximally conjoined body segment
Elevation in physiology, the motions or functions of a part or organ of the body
Anatomical position divides the body into equal and symmetrical right and left halves
Insertion in excess of normal flexion
Hyperextension the front of the body or body part
Adduction farthest from a point of reference (opposite of proximal)
Supine means near the surface
Anterior nearest to the point of attachment, origin or other point of reference
Varus ventral aspect of the hand (palm of the hand)
Flexion means greater or larger
Proximal toward the surface of the body or body part
Pronation upper surface (e.g. top of foot)
Prone ventral aspect of the foot (sole of the foot)
Peripheral movement towards the median plane and around an anterior-posterior axis with the angle between the displaced parts becoming lesser, as in bringing the arm sideward against the body
Retraction turning outwardly or away from the midline of the body
Medial the front of the body or body part
External rotation in excess of normal extension
Posterior is medial rotation of the forearm, as in turning the palm of the hand downward
Eversion face down, horizontal position of the body
Dorsum the turning of a limb toward the midline of the body
Hyperflexion refers to a deeper position
Abduction toward the bottom of the body or body part
Origin ventral aspect of the hand
Extension away from the midline of the body
Inferior the extent to which a body part can move through all of its planes of movement
Hyper position of a body part the is bent inward
Minor toward the top of the body or body part
Dorsiflexion / the back side of the hand
Mid sagittal the back of the body or body part
Major is movement around a longitudinal axis which passes through a joint as in turning the palm of the hand up or down with the arm abducted
Protraction means near the surface
Dorsal means lesser or smaller

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